VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF CYLINDRICAL THIN SHELL

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Sunday, 1 May 2011

A STUDY OF IDENTIFYING TRAINING NEEDS

THE PROJECT REPORT

ON

“A STUDY OF IDENTIFYING TRAINING NEEDS”

A CASE STUDY OF M.S.E.T.C.L.

SUBMITTED BY

ARVIND SADASHIV GAVANKAR

TO

FOR THE AWARD

OF

MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION





(MS-100)
THE PROJECT REPORT
ON

“A STUDY OF IDENTIFYING TRAINING NEEDS”
A CASE STUDY OF M.S.E.T.C.L.

SUBMITTED BY

ARVIND SADASHIV GAVANKAR
TO

THE SCHOOL OF COMMERCE & MANAGEMENT
YASHWANTRAO CHAVAN MAHARASHTRA
OPEN UNIVERSITY, NASHIK

UNDER THE GUIDENCE OF
SHRI.SHANBHAG DHANANJAY N.

FOR THE AWARD
OF
MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
2004-2007



RECEIPT

Date:29/08/2009

Received from Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik the sum of Rs. 300/- (Rs.Three Hundred Only) as honorarium for the guidance to the following M.B.A. student for his project work.

Details regarding the student guided are as follows:

(1) Name of the student : Arvind Sadashiv Gavankar

(2) Name of the student study centre: Smt. G.N.K.(MBA) College J.B.

Nagar, Andheri (East), Mumbai.

(3) Student’s P.R. No. : OP0700148

(4) Title of the report : “A study of Identifying training needs a case
study of MSETCL.”

Thanking you.





NAME: Dhananjay N. Shanbag
ADDRESS: B/303, Sheraton Classic, Dr. Charat Singh Colony,
Andheri (East), Mumbai – 400 093.
¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬

FOR OFFICE USE ONLY










GUIDE’S CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project titled “a study of identifying training needs a case study of M.S.E.T.C.L.” prepared by Shri. Arvind Sadashiv Gavankar in partial fulfillment of his work for the award of Master of Business Administration and submitted to Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik has been completed under my supervision & guidance.
To the best of my knowledge & belief the report presented by him is original in nature & has not been copied down from any source.
Also this project has not been submitted earlier for the award of any degree or diploma of Yashwantrao Chavan Mharashtra Open University, Nashik or any other university.

Place: - Mumbai
Date: - 25/08/2009


Signature of the Guide

Name: - Shri. Shanbag Dhananjay N.
Designation: - Counselor for MBA,
YCMOU, Nashik
Address of the Guide: B/303, Sheraton Classic,
Dr.Charat Singh Colony,
Andheri-East, Mumbai-93.




CERTIFICATE OF ORIGINALITY

I the undersigned, hereby declare that this report titled “a study of identifying training needs a case study of M.S.E.T.C.L.” is a genuine and bonafide work prepared by me under the guidance of Shri. Shanbhag Dhananjay N. and is my original work.
The empirical findings in the report are based on the data collected by me. The matter presented in this project report is original and not copied from any source.
I understand that any such coping is liable for punishment in any way the University Authority deem fit. Also this work has not been submitted earlier for award of any diploma or degree by Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik or by any other University or Institute.
The project report in original is submitted by Yashwantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University, Nashik for the award of the degree of Master of Business Administration.

Place: - Mumbai
Date: - 22/8/2009

Shri.Arvind Sadashiv Gavankar
(Research Candidate)






ACKNOLEDMENT

It is a matter of great pleasure to have this opportunity to express my whole hearted sense of gratitude to hon’able Shri.Shanbhag Dhananjay N.for the valuable guidance throughout the investigation and help rendered by him in preparation of this dissertation.

I take this opportunity to acknowledge my heart respect and sincere thanks to the Principal, Director & their staff of Ruparel College, Matunga & Smt.Ginnibai Narayandas Kyamsaria M.B.A. College, J.B.Nagar, Andheri (East) for making available all facilities the requirements for the research work and M.B.A. study.

It gives great pleasure to acknowledge my indebtedness to all respondents for their full co-operation in spite of their busy schedule in my research process.

I am very thanks to Shri.Padgaokar Govind working in Air India for his constant inspiration and Mrs.Suchitra Parab who has taken keen efforts for typing.

Words are limited to express my thanks to all concerned that extended their unlimited co-operation, guidance and advices in completing my assignment.


Arvind Sadashiv Gavankar
(Research Candidate)


SYNOPSIS (PROJECT PROPOSAL)
TITLE
“Identifying Training Needs – A case study of M.S.E.T.C.L.”

1. INTRODUCTION

Under the provision of the India Electricity Supply Act, 1948 State Electricity Board was constituted for operation of Generation, Transmission and Distribution of Electricity in the various states of India. Thus was formed the Bombay State Electricity Board and later on the Maharashtra State Electricity Board in 1960. M.S.E.B. the public sector undertakes was responsible for building and strengthening power infrastructure.
The performance of many public sector undertakings including State Electricity Board’s was found to be far from satisfactory and loss making ones causing financial burden on exchequers. This is one of the reasons that led to adoption of new economic policy in July 1991. The three aims of policy being liberalization, globalization & privatization. The reform process in power sector started with amendments in I.E. Supply Act 1948 and I.E. Act 1910 which facilitated private sector participation. For rationalization of electricity tariff as well as for transparent & efficient policies, Central Electricity Regulatory Commission Act was enacted in 1998 under Electricity Regulatory Commission was constituted at each state & at central level. The parliament passed the Electricity Act 2003 with the objective to introduce competition, protect consumer’s interest and provide power to all. The act also made State Electricity Board’s mandatory to restructure.
Thus M.S.E.B. was unbundled and restructured in the following companies w.e.f. 6/6/2005.

1) M.S.E.B. Holding Company.
2) Maharashtra State Power Generation Company Ltd.
3) Maharashtra State Electricity Distribution Company Ltd.
4) Maharashtra State Electricity Transmission Company Ltd.
All the above companies are registered under the Company Act.1956.



2. PROFILE OF THE ORGANIZATION

M.S.E.T.C.L. is one of the largest transmission utilities in the state operating about 35108 CKT km. transmission lines, 468 EHV sub-stations and having transformer capacity of 56164 MVA.
Being the Government undertaking company, the primary aim is to enhance its productivity, quality service, profitability & effectiveness in the area of cost reduction, customer satisfaction etc. needs to develop the qualities & competencies of its employees and motive them to perform the task assigned to them so as to bring about the overall development in all respect. Properly trained, competent and highly motivated employees are essential for survival and growth of the organization.
The M.S.E.T.C.L. has a big task ahead to meet these challenges with available resources. Money (fund) can be borrowed but it is the available Men (human resource) which needs to be utilized in a more systematic & scientific way. The study proposed will help to device an appropriate H.R. development programmed for company to meet these challenges.

3. IMPORTANCE & SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY:

It is therefore, felt necessary to study training needs,

i) To develop the efficiency and competency of the employees to achieves the organization goals.
ii) To develop the general and special capability in individual and exploit the inner potential of the employees for their own and organizational development.
iii) To develop and organizational culture. This includes, supervisors subordinate relationship, teamwork and contribute towards the professional well-being, motivation and pride to employees.
iv) To inculcate teams spirits and foster fraternity amongst the employees across the cadre working in company.

4. RATIONALE

M.S.E.T.C.L. is having a moderate manpower and major portion of it is of unskilled or poor quality and lack of enthusiasm spread over the entire state of Maharashtra. Hence, it is essential to develop the new.



Competencies and increase the help of training and good H.R. policies and try to achieve the objectives and goals of the origination.
At present the total staff strength is 13510 and thus it is felt, if H.R. development programme is introduced in a proper manner, it can available human asset in an efficient & effective manner.
The training and motivation forms an important mechanism for human resource development and hence this study is being undertaken.

5. OBJECTIVE

The main objective of the study would be:-
1) To develop human competencies and create healthy environment and to ensure employees satisfaction with the work.
2) To search out the problematic areas in which needs to devote itself to improve its operations and gear up itself for the challenges of the future by deciding priorities for action such as ---
A) The existing pattern of training, modification or changes needs for officers and employees development (Technical & Behavioral).
B) Efforts needed to motivate the officers & employees
C) Management’s role in linking organization development with training, strategies & motivation.

6. HYPOTHESIS

i) MSETCL is a public sector undertaking where more than 13510 people are working. Therefore there is a necessity to identify the Training Needs before imparting any training programme to the employees.
ii) The project aims at providing better opportunities of training for its employees to develop their personality, skills & to update themselves with the new trends & technologies introduced which could help them to perform their jobs more effectively & efficiently, thereby to achieve both, the individual as well as organizational development.
iii) There is need to actually analyze the training needs & the suitable employees to whom the training to be given. The importance of training course imparted periodically by the employees for the subject training & just to fulfill the sufficient quorum for the conditions of the training, employees are sent/deputed for attending such training course, which

ultimately leads to failure to achieve the goals of the organization as a whole.
iv) Therefore employees get hardly any chance to put in to practice / make / use of the new skills or competencies he / she has acquired during the training, while performing their own duties.

7. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Collection of relevant, unbiased date, avoiding errors and understatement / over statement, keeping also in mind the time & cost required.
The interpretation of result shall be made to have relevance for decision to be made and in an understandable manner to instill confidence that recommendation is justified.

The method to be adopted for research will be as follows:-
1) Primary data :-
 Assessing the needs for training, strategies & motivation through a questionnaire.
 Study of existing practices (Training & Motivation.)
 Personal observation of a few employees who have received training.
 Stratified random sampling method shall be adopted by dividing population into technical/HR/F&A staff.
2) Secondary data:-
 The monthly circulations of the M.S.E.T.C.L. bulletin.
 Erstwhile M.S.E.B.’S Service Regulation Recruitment Regulation, General Order, General Standing Order, Administrative Circulars etc.
 Website of M.S.E.T.C.L.

8. EXPECTED CONTRIBUTION:-

1) It will help to understand

i) Whether present programme of training & motivation in M.S.E.T.C.L. is appropriate to meet the challenges before it.
ii) Whether the officers & employees need and expect any more H.R. development programme.

2) Suggestions to modify the training & motivation programme in line with H.R. development for utmost utilization of vast human asset of the company.This project will be helpful to the organization to decide training policies, strategies & motivation.

9. CHAPTERRIZATION:-

The study shall comprise following chapter –
Chapter 1: Introduction & research design.
Chapter 2: Profile of MSETCL.
Chapter 3: Research Methodology.
Chapter 4: Training needs analysis, strategy & motivation.
Chapter 5: Data base structure i.e. tables and graphs.
Chapter 6: Analysis and interpretation of data.
Chapter 7: Finding, conclusion & recommendations / suggestions.
Chapter 8: Appendices / Bibliography.

10. LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

M.S.E.T.C.L. is a Government undertaking company spread entire of state and primarily in the business of transmission of electricity.

There are technical, non-technical, skilled as well as unskilled employees.

It would be beyond the scope of this project to study the entire organizational system.

However, research will be conducted in all Zone and Corporate office in a random basis.










LIST OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER NO. TITLE PAGE
1 INTRODUCTION & RESEARCH DESIGN 15
1.1 Vision of M.S.E.T.C.L. 16
1.2 Mission of M.S.E.T.C.L. 16-17
1.3 Training policy of M.S.E.T.C.L. 17
1.4 Goal 17
1.5 Govt. of India policy 18
1.5.1 Genesis 18
1.5.2 Scope of the standing committee 18
1.5.3 Making of the policy 18-19
1.5.4 Philosophy 19
1.5.5 Highlights of policy involved 19-20
1.5.6 Implementation of the policy guideline 20
2 PROFILE OF M.S.E.T.C.L. 22
2.1 Vision & mission 22
2.2 Objectives and goals 22
2.3 M.S.E.T.C.L. developmental Roll in State 23
2.4 Operational highlight 24-25
2.5 Network 25
2.6 Infrastructure plan 26-27
2.7 Benefits of the infrastructure 27
2.8 Financial performance 27
2.9 Preparation and planning for PMS 28
2.1 Training 29
2.10.1 Major activities carried out so far 29
2.10.2 Currency Training Programme 29
2.10.3 Training Methodology 30
2.10.4 Data Sources 31
2.10.5 Responsibility of Training illustrated 31
2.10.6 Training Function 32
2.10.7 Training Implementation 33
2.10.8 Training Assessment 34
2.10.9 Areas of Training Identified 34-36
2.11 Priority Programmes - Function wise 36-38
3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 39
3.1 Objective of research 40
3.2 Research Approaches 40-41
3.3 Research process followed 41
3.4 Repairing the research design 41
3.5 The means of obtaining information 41
3.6 Determining sample design 42
3.6.1 Steps in sampling design 42
3.7 Execution of the project 42
4 TRAINING NEED ANALYSIS 43
4.2 Training need arises at three level 44
4.2.1 Organizational level 44
4.2.2 Individual level 44
4.2.3 Operational level 45
4.3 Training design 45
4.4 Importance of concept of training 46-48
4.5 Identifying training needs 48
4.5.1 Organization analysis 49
4.5.2 Task analysis 49
4.5.3 Manpower analysis 50
5 DATA BASE STRUCTURE i.e. TABLES & GRAPHS 51
5.1 Tables & Graphs 1 to 18 52-69
6 ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION of DATA 70
6.1 Analysis & interpretation of Table & Graphs 1 to 18 71-74
7 FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS & SUGGESTIONS / RECOMMENDATIONS / LIMITATIONS 75
7.1 Findings 76
7.2 Conclusion 76-77
7.3 Recommendations/Suggestions 77-78
7.4 Limitations 78
8 APPENDICS/BIBLIOGRAPHY 79
8.1 Appendices 80-81
8.2 Bibliography 82
8.3 Question forms of zone offices 83-93









LIST OF TABLES

CHAPTER NO. TITLE PAGE
1. Network 25
2. Infrastructure Plan 26
3. Financial Performance 28
4. Count of Finance & Accounting Programs 37
5. Count of Technical Programme 37
6. Count of Fire and Safety Programme 38


LIST OF CHARTS

CHAPTER NO. TITLE PAGE
1. Training Methodology 30
2. Responsibility of Training Illustrated 31
3. Training Design 45













CHAPTER-1


INTRODUCTION
&
RESEARCH DESIGN






INTRODUCTION OF MSETCL AND RESEARCH DESING
Under the provision of the Indian Electricity Supple Act, 1948 State Electricity Board was constituted for operation of Generation, Transmission and Distribution of electricity in the various State of Maharashtra. Thus was formed the Bombay State Electricity Board and later on the Maharashtra State Electricity Board in 1960. M.S.E.B. the public sector undertakes was responsible for building and strengthening power infrastructure.
The performance of many public sector undertakings including State Electricity Board’s was found to be far from satisfactory and loss making ones causing financial burden on exchequers. This is one of the reasons that led to adoption of new economic policy in July 1991. The three aims of policy being liberalization, globalization & privatization. The reform process in power sector stared with amendments in I.E. Supply Act 1948 and I.E. Act 1910 which facilitated private sector participation. For rationalization of electricity tariff as well as for transparent & efficient policies, Central Electricity Regulatory Commission Act was enacted in 1998 under Electricity Regulatory Commission was constituted at each State & at Central level. The parliament passed the Electricity Act 2003 with the objective to introduce competition, protect consumer’s interest and provide power to all. The Act also made State Electric Board’s mandatory to restructure.
Thus M.S.E.B. was unbundled and restructured in the following companies w.e.f.6/6/2005….
M.S.E.B. Holding Company.
Maharashtra State Power Generation Company Ltd.
Maharashtra State Electricity Distribution Company Ltd.
Maharashtra State Electricity Transmission Company Ltd.
All the above companies are registered under the Company Act, 1956.
1.1 Vision of MSETCL
“To establish as a best STU in India by the year 2010 with reference to performance, network development and service standards.”

1.2 Mission of MSETCL

“We as a State Transmission Utility (STU) dedicate our selves to plan buildup operates and maintains the State Transmission System to felicitate transmission of electricity from its source to load centers in a secure, reliable and economic manner for the best service to the consumers & society, and offer
enhanced career opportunities to its employees and generate reasonable returns.”
“We aim to provide an efficient transmission services in a transparent and non-discriminatory manner, by using best practices and standards laid down from time to time.”
The Standing Committee on training set up with an objective to bring into focus, the needs to step up training and human resources development, create an orientation of power sector personnel and stake-holders towards the urgency and the need for reforms and energy conservation as well as provide a standing joint forum for coordination of training related matters in the power sector under the Chairmanship of Joint Secretary (T&R). The DG-NPTI is the Member Secretary and the Secretary (CEA) as well as the Director Personnel of lead CPSUs is the members of the committee.
The committee evolved a comprehensive National Training Policy document for the power sector, which was adopted by the Government of India. The basic philosophy behind the policy is “Training for all at regular intervals to enable the employees to develop potential and contribute through reduction in cost of delivered power and its reliable and quality supply at the highest levels of efficiency and accountability.”

1.3 Training Policy of MSETCL
1.3.1 Training for all

Every employee has a right to receive need-based training at regular intervals to enable him/her to develop his/her potential to the maximum and contribute his/her best to the organization.

1.4 Goal
The ultimate goal of power training is customer satisfaction through reduction in cost of delivered power and its reliable and quality supply at the highest level of efficiency and accountability.
• A separate division of Training, Research & Development has been established to look after of the training function of the company.
• A minimum of 1.5% salary budget has been allocated initially towards training function.
• The Induction level training has been made mandatory for T&D personal similar to the Transmission personnel.
• Adequate infrastructures for training in Transmission need to be developed.


1.5 Govt. of India’s policy

The recent development in India’s power sector warrant a fresh look at the current HRD/training scenario and development of a dynamic training policy in consonance with the rapid changes being unleashed in this sector.

1.5.1 Genesis

In a meeting on Training and Research in Power Sector, chaired by Shri.Suresh Prabhu,Hon’ble Minister of Power, held on 28th February, 2001, it was resolved that there is a need to work out a National Training Policy and a committee in this regard should be constituted. This committee would provide a standing joint forum for evolving a national perspective and operational plans on training in the power sector.

1.5.2 Scope of the Standing Committee:

The scope of the Committee was to bring into focus, the need to step up training and human resource development, create an orientation of power sector personal and stakeholders towards the urgency and the need for reforms and energy conservation as well as provide a standing joint forum for coordination of training related matters in the power sector.

1.5.3 Making of the Policy

To evolve a national consensus on a National Training Policy for power sector with wide participation from all over the country, a two day conference
was organized by the National Power Training Institute on 20th and 21st April, 2001 at New Delhi for CEO’s and HRD heads of central, state and private
power utilities, academic institutions and Central/State Electricity Regulatory Commissions the conference in the presence of Union Minister of State for Power Smt.Jayawantiben Mehta. Eighty-four participants from various power sector organizations and academic institution shared their views on the issues related to training in electricity industry.

The Standing Committee met thrice and deliberated extensively on the complex training concerns of the power sector as well as on the recommendations of the National Conference and evolved a comprehensive National Training Policy. Three zonal meetings were also conducted at Bangalore, Guwahati and Nagpur to present the strategy/action plan before the
power generators, distributors and others concerned for eliciting their views before finalization of the report, to give the policy document a true National character. The final report of the committee devised a training strategy and a tome bound action plan for its implementation.

1.5.4 Philosophy

The basic philosophy on which the guideline has been devised is:
Training for all every employee has a right to receive need based training at regular intervals to enable him/her to develop his/her potential to the maximum and contribute his/her best to the organization.
The ultimate goal of each training course is customer satisfaction through reduction in cost of delivered power and supply of reliable and quality power at adequate and improving levels of efficiency and accountability.

1.5.5 Highlights of Policy evolved

The salient points of the policy document are:

a) The committee noted that there is a glaring lack of training culture in
majority of the power sector organizations and hence all organizations
should adopt a formal written training policy to ensure training for all
personnel for a minimum period of one week annually for each employee.

b) A comprehensive training plan should be formulated by each power company based on periodical training need analysis.

c) Training in power sector reforms should be provided to all stakeholders including the regulators and consumers forums.

d) The training function should be the responsibility of the head of the personnel division in an organization.

e) Money spent on training should be treated as an investment. The human resource should be considered as a corporate asset.

f) A minimum of 1.5% salary budget may be allocated initially towards training function.

g) Networking amongst various organizations under the Ministry of Power and other reputed institutes should be done fro optimal use the training
infrastructure and intellectual resources and to change the present
attitude of ‘my-resources-my-people’ to our resources-our people’.

h) Induction level training should made mandatory for T&D personnel similar to the generation personnel.

i) Adequate infrastructure for training in Hydropower, Transmission & Distribution and Non-Conventional Energy should be developed.

j) Simulator training at suitable intervals to be made compulsory for operation staff of the power plants.

k) Introduction of training is disaster management by developing a team of resource persons.

l) A Training Management Information System (TIMS) should be put in place to integrate the training institutions.

m) Appropriate performance measurement and incentive system should be evolved for trainers and training institutions.

n) Manufacturers may be involved in training activity to ensure that their specific product knowledge and expertise and facilities are appropriately utilized.

o) Adequate training should be made a requirement for the contractors to quality for the supply of labour in power installations.

p) Long-term plan for continuous up gradation of knowledge and skill of trainers.

1.6 Implementation of the Policy Guideline

The unique feature of this policy document is that it has given a time bound action plan for each of the policy guidelines identifying the specific organization responsible for its implementation.













CHAPTER-2


PROFILE
OF
M.S.E.T.C.L.








2 Profile of MSETCL

Maharashtra State Electricity Transmission Company Limited (Mahatransco), incorporated in June, 2005 on restructuring of the then MSEB. This wholly owned corporate entity under Maharashtra Govt. commenced its operations in Fiscal 2005 as part of an initiative of the Government of Maharashtra to consolidate and organize Generation, Transmission and Distribution activities under separate entities.

Mahatransco is the largest electric power transmission Utility / Company in State sector in India in virtually all terms. We own and operate most of the Maharashtra’s electric power transmission system. In this capacity, as on March 31, 2009 we owns and operates a transmission network of 36287 circuit kilometers of electrical transmission lines and more than 500 EHV substations with 61530 MVA transformation capacity. This infrastructure constitutes most of inter-regional as well as intra-regional electric power transmission system in Maharashtra State and carries electric power across the same. Mahatransco’s transmission system is capable of handling about 15000 MW of power.

In Fiscal 2007, we transmitted approximately 79888 Million units of electricity, representing approximately 12% of all the power generated in India.

2.1 Vision and Mission

To establish ourselves as model STU and transmission licensee with respect to planning, project implementation, operational capabilities, performance with emphasis on cost and quality consciousness, human resources development and corporate social responsibility.


2.2 Objectives and Goals

To make this vision and mission a reality, MSETCL has set following Goals and objectives for itself. MSETCL has already undertaken key initiatives to align its long term vision to the changing business requirements.

 To make network development and investment plans for an Intra-state transmission system that is secure, reliable and economical, development best-in-class system study and system planning capacities within the organization.

 To ensure safety and stability of the grid.


 To develop a State-of-the-art SLDC with corresponding communication, RTU & SCADA systems, information and knowledge management systems as well as operational skills.

 To fulfill all statutory and regulatory codes, standards, directives and targets in relation to planning, network development, operations and services.

 To ensure safety during operations, maintenance and construction activities.

 To achieve targets of transformation capacity.

 To achieve targets of transmission line commissioning.

 To keep track of state-of-the-art technology in the areas of sub-station design, construction, protection, communication, maintenance, information systems, diagnostics, repair, restoration and life extension.

 To develop a management culture of care, trust, transparency and open communication.

 To establish a strong ethos of work culture, quality consciousness and high performance across the organization.

 To create a feeling of professional and organizational pride and strong bonding among different functional groups and cadres.

 To act with a sense of social responsibility towards consumers, project affected persons, less privileged sections of society and the environment.

2.3 Mahatransco’s Developmental Role in State

Maharashtra is a pioneering state and occupies a prominent position in India. Maharashtra contributes 13% of country’s GDP. Its per capita income is 39% higher than per capita income of the country as a whole. Maharashtra is a growing economy with a growth rate of 7.1% for a last decade. It has a strong industrial base. It has well developed infrastructure. Thus Maharashtra is a most favored investment destination in the country. Without electricity this can not be hold true.



Availability of electric power plays pivotal role in the overall development. Electricity is regarded as one of the most basic and important input is for development. Mahatransco is giving its Lion’s share in this endeavor.

The Mahatransco’s transmission system is presently capable of handling the power which is available for the State. In doing so, it fulfils three key roles – it provides a transportation service from generation sources which are mainly located in eastern Vidharbha to load centers i.e. mainly Mumbai, Thane, Pune and Western Maharashtra with reliability, security and economy, facilitates competition, and ensures secure and reliable supply to consumers.
At least 4 fold growths in electricity generation capacity are needed over the period of next 10 years. Considering the planned expansion in generation capacity and the anticipated load growth corresponding to rapid industrial growth in Maharashtra, the State needs robust and vibrant Transmission network. Mahatransco has therefore embarked upon a very ambitious plan for expansion and up-gradation of its transmission infrastructure by 2012 to handle such a large amount of power.

The role played by Mahatransco is and will be critical to the development of Maharashtra.

2.4 Operational Highlights

 MSETCL owns and operates 498 EHV substations with a transformation capacity of 61530 MVA at 6 EHV levels from 55 KV to 400 KV.

 On an average, the company transmits 70,000 MU of electricity annually. The company covers a transmission length of 36287 Ckt Km of EHV lines.

 The company also has the distinction of being the only power transmission utility in the state sector to own a HVDC dipole link.

 The company operates a 752 km long, 1500 MW, +/- 500 KV bipolar HVDC line from Chandrapur to Padghe in Maharashtra.

 MSETCL has SLDC at Kalwa near Mumbai and area Load Dispatch Centre at Ambazari near Nagpur.



 In FY 07-08, MSETCL transmitted 79,888 MUs of electricity as compared to that to 75,537 MUs in the previous year. For the same period, the Transmission system availability for EHV AC system was 98.905 as compared to 98.80% in the previous year.

 The HVDC system availability also improved to 92.29% in FY 07-08 on account of replacement of earth wire. It is expected to improve further in FY 08-09.

 The Transmission losses of the Company during 07-08 were 4.67%; which are within regulatory benchmark of 4.85%.

2.5 NETWORK

Mahatransco wheels about 12% of the total power generated in the country and major portion in the State of Maharashtra on its transmission network. Mahatransco has a transmission network in reach and bound across the state of Maharashtra with around 36287 Circuit Kms of transmission lines and 498 nos. of EHV AC & HVDC sub-stations with a total transformation capacity of 61530 MVA.

This network also provides the ring main system around major cities like Pune, Thane (Kalwa), Aurangabad, Nasik and Nagpur at EHV level. This is the largest transmission network of all the States of Maharashtra. The 500 KV, 1500 MW Chandrapur – Padghe HVDC Link is the unique feature of Maharashtra State system in the country. This HVDC corridor of 752 KM is very crucial link between Eastern and Western Maharashtra for transmission of bulk power.

Sr.
No. Particulars As on 31.03.06 Progress during year 2006-07 Progress during year 2007-08 Total as on 31.03.08
1. No. of EHV
Sub-Stations 468 18 12 498
2. EHV Lines in Circuit-km 35028 599 660 36287
3. Transformation Capacity in MVA 55759 1954 3817 61530



2.6 INFRASTRUCTURE PLAN

Sr.
No. Particulars 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 Total By March 2012
1. New EHV Sub-Stations (Nos.) 12 19 25 30 55 121 607
2. Transmission Lines ckt-km 660 600 3135 3800 4597 12792 48419
3. Addition of transformation capacity (MVA) 3817 5251 10467 11810 6965 38310 96023
4. Capital Outlay (Rs. In Crores) 1240 2400 4580 4740 3759 16719 16719

MSETCL has planned to establish a robust Transmission network with Transmission capacity of 30,000 to 35,000 MW by 2012, an increase of more than 120% as the present system is quite inadequate. In view of this, MSETCL’s STU department has prepared a Five Year rolling plan 2007-2012 and obtained approval of MERC for establishment of S/S and Transmission lines from 132 KV to 765 KV level.
The cost of this infrastructure plan is estimated at Rs.16719 Crores. At the end of March, 1012, a total transmission system of 607 sub-stations, 48419 Ckt KM lines and transformation capacity of 96023 MVA is envisaged that will be capable for handling a demand of 30,000 to 35,000 MW.
In order to achieve the target by 2012, it has become necessary to speed up the projects implementation so as to enable to keep the Transmission network ready by the time additional planned Generation capacity comes up. Further, MSETCL is required to ensure development of an efficient, co-ordinate and economical system of intra-state transmission lines, undertake transmission of electricity and to provide non-discriminatory open access to its transmission


system on payment of specific charges for other utilities. Taking into consideration the above, schemes are prepared on the basis of load requirement from MSEDCL, new Generation projects of MSPGCL / I.P.Ps, load flow studies and STU plan. With the implementation of the proposed schemes, MSETCL can ensure the availability, reliability and efficiency of Transmission system by March, 2012 positively with a capacity addition to the tune of 38310 MVA and line of about 12792 Kms. spread over in the entire Maharashtra State.

2.7 Benefits of the Infrastructure / Investment plan as under

(1) Evacuation of power from all new generation projects (within state, outside state and central projects).
(2) Establishment of robust transmission network.
(3) Redundancy in transformer capacity and line.
(4) Improvement in overall availability, reliability and efficiency of transmission system.
(5) Facilitate open access in transmission sector within the State.

2.8 Financial Performance

The total gross asset base of Mahatransco at the end of 2007-08 was Rs.9879 crores. The company has delivered a record performance across most of its operating indicators during 2007-08. It has excellent in terms of regulatory standards of performance as well. This year (i.e. the year 2007-08) the profit of Company was Rs.258 Crore against Rs.169 Crore last year. Capital expenditure was pegged at Rs.1114 crore for up gradation of the transmission infrastructure. Assets were increased by Rs.869 crore during 2007-08.
Maharashtra State Electricity Transmission Company Limited, the State Transmission Utility (STU) of Maharashtra, is engaged in Construction, Operation & Maintenance of the intra-State transmission network. Mahatransco operates in a regulatory environment where 14% ROE is allowed by Maharashtra Electricity Regulatory Commission. MSETCL have 100% realization of its revenue and the same is ensured through a payment security mechanism in the form of irrevocable revolving Letters of Credit facility from all four distribution licensees. Therefore, MSETCL has made profits every year since its incorporation.


Particular 2005-06
(Actual) 2006-07
(Actual) 2007-08
Receipt 1192 1463 1652
Expenditure 884 1294 1394
Net Profit 308 169 258

2.9 Preparation and Planning for Performance Management System

We have already done a lot of work in preparation and planning for performance management. The goals for each department have been set, key performance indicators (KPI) are identified and performance standards targets agreed upon. On the basis of this, KPIs and targets of managers and employees are already fixed by –

 Defining the purpose of the job, job duties and responsibilities.
 Defining performance goals with measurable outcomes.

An ongoing dialogue between the manager and employee is essential to ensure that individual goals are aligned a personal development organizational goals.
 Clear definition of goals, KPIs and targets with timelines and process ownership ;

 Empowering managers to take ownership and drive the process ;

 Having well-aligned learning and development6 strategies to make people successful ;

 Developing communication and dialoguing skills of managers ;

 Rewarding high performers and putting in place a system that allows good management of poor performers.


2.10 TRAINING

Every employee has a right to receive need based training at regular intervals to enable him / her to develop his / her potential to the maximum and contribute his / her best to the organization

2.10.1 MAJOR ACTIVITIES CARRIED OUT SO FAR
• Corporate Training Centre at Lonavala is being set up
• Regional Training Centre in each zone is being set up for importing induction level training to the operators & technicians being recruited.
• Basic computer training to employees of MSETCL made through MKCL.
• Training on electric safety conducted in all the Zones.
• Training on HVDC technology at IIT, Powai.


2.10.2 CURRENT TRAINING PROGRAMME

Based on training need analysis following areas are earmarked to start
with and training currently on at YASHADA Pune.
• Induction Level Training for new junior engineers.
• Management Development Programme (MDP)
• Project Management Programme for project engineers (PMP)
• Protection System & Testing for maintenance engineers (PS&T)
Other training programme
• Performance Management System (PMS) in each zone.
• Hot line maintenance with hot stick and bare hand training at NPTI, Banglore.





2.10.3 Training Methodology
Our Overall Training Methodology understanding can be summarized as below:

• Training structure and policies
• Train the trainers for identified trainers

To facilitate management decision making we had proposed a grouping of programs under categories, a total of 104 programs identified have been grouped under the following broad categories.

• Behavioral
• General Management
• Finance & Accounts
• Regulatory
• PR & Communication
• Technical
• Fire and Safety
• Procurement
For ease of understanding we have grouped the analyzed data into:
• Function Wise – Where priority programs are explained with the top three needed programs, and
• Program Wise – Where the needs of the different cadre’s of employees are assessed.

2.10.4 Data Sources

We gathered information by surveying and implementing structured, semi and non structured interviews to all the corporate office and field roles present in MSETCL of EE and above cadre.
The survey instrument was a structured open and close ended questionnaire. The questionnaire was developed by meeting the field members, both of which were approved by MSETCL counterpart team to understand the implications for training provision.
The results presented in the report were from questionnaires which were released in June 2007. The analysis of the questionnaire data and the results are presented in this report. The following report has undertaken data from across all cadres and across all sectors. Information was collected from 120 employees. Further the compilation of Training Needs from various sources have been prioritized and verified by Departmental Heads.
2.10.5 Responsibility of Training Illustrated


Assessment of Current Training Practices

2.10.6 Training Function


















2.10.7 Training Implementation
















2.10.8 Training Assessment

2.10.9 Areas of Training – Identified
a) Behavioral
1. Communication skills and Presentation Skills
2. Interpersonal Skills
3. Assertiveness
4. Motivation
5. Leadership & Teamwork
6. Attitude Change
7. Personality Development

b) Generic Management
1. Capsule/Refresher Courses in General Management
2. Business Ethics & Values
3. Creative & Innovation
4. Culture & Change Management
5. Time Management
6. Negotiation Skills
7. Strategic Management


c) Finance and Accounts
1. Basic Accounting Skills
2. Business Finance
3. Auditing Skills
4. Companies Act, 1956
5. Indian Accounting Standards
6. Working Capital Management
7. Managing Business And Finance Risk
8. Activity Based Costing

d) Regulatory
1. Refresher on Relevant norms specified by CERC/MERC
2. CERC/MERC Contents, Expectations & Obligations
3. Regulatory and Legal Framework and STU Implications
4. Licensing and Regulatory Instruments
5. ARR filing/Preparation of Submission to Regulatory Commission
6. MYT and its Implications
7. Grid Code and Coordination Requirements

e) PR and Communication
1. Basic Writing skills
2. Lessoning skills
3. Media Management

f) Technical
1. EHV Substation Engineering
2. Fundamentals of Transmission System – System voltage, high voltage circuit breakers
3. High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) Transmission and Testing
4. HV Distribution
5. Indian Electricity Act. – Contractors, Consumers and Suppliers
6. Inspection of Electrical System under India Electricity Act
7. O&M – Transmission Lines & Substations’
8. O&M – Transformers & Circuit Breakers
9. Operation and Maintenance of EHV Sub-stations
10. Power System SCAD
11. Protection – EHV protection, transformer, bus bar, lines/feeder/
distance protection, faults, breakers

g) Fire and Safety
1. Regular refresher course
2. Basic Fire & Safety (extinguisher)
3. Advance Fire & Safety
4. First Aid

h) Procurement
1. Documentation, Retrieval & Follow-up
2. ERP – Materials Module
3. Integrated Materials Management System
4. Inventory Control & Analysis
5. Invitation of Tenders (Procedures/Practice/Legal Formalities)
6. Logistic Management
7. Materials Management System – Stores, Stores Inventory, Purchasing and Managing materials
8. Quality Management

2.11 Priority Programs – Function Wise

The following section highlights the summary of the individual responses received. However, for implementation of programs. The following sections have to be read in conjunction to Annexure III appended at the end of this report incorporating comments of Departmental Heads on Draft Report.

a) Behavioral

The need for behavioral programs is evenly spread across, as most programs enjoy popularity. However, based on the numbers mentioned below in the table, we can prioritize the top three programs:

• Communication skills and Presentation Skills
• Personality Development
• Corporate/Business Communication

b) Finance and Accounts

In the finance and accounts section, the employees interested in the programs are more evenly spread. There is however, a clear distinction of the
most wanted program. Therefore, with the data in the table below, the three most wanted programs in the finance and accounting section are:

• Basic Accounting Skills
• Companies Act, 1956
• Activity Based Costing
Similarly, the table below shows the level of interest of the employees across all the finance and accounting programs.

Count of Finance and Accounting Programs (Current)

Sr. No. Name of the Program No. of Emp
1 Basic Accounting Skills 85
2 Business Finance 54
3 Auditing Finance 59
4 Companies Act, 1956 77
5 Indian Accounting Standards 54
6 Working Capital Management 55
7 Managing Business and Finance Risk 55
8 Activity Based Costing 68


C) Technical

In the technical section, there are a wide range of programs, but from the numbers mentioned in the table below, we ascertain the top three programs to be:

• Power System SCADA
• Protection - EHV protection, transformer, bus bar, lines/feeder/ distance protection, faults, breakers and Advanced Power System Protection
• EHV Substation Engineering
The list below is populated with technical programs and the current need of the employees for it.




Count of Technical Programs (Current)
Sr. No. Name of the Program No. of Emp
1. EHV Substation Engineering 71
2. Fundamentals of Transmission System – System voltage, high voltage, circuit breaker 58
3. High voltage Direct Current (HVDC) Transmission and Testing 45
4. HV Distribution 38
5. Indian Electricity Act – Contractors, Consumers and Suppliers 60
6. Inspection of Electrical System under Indian Electricity Act 61
7. O&M – Transmission Lines & Substations 47
8. O&M – Transformers & Circuit Breakers 50
9. Operation and Maintenance of EHV Sub-stations 51
10. Power System SCADA 78
11. Protection – EHV protection, transformer, bus bar, lines /feeder / distance protection, faults, breakers 75

d) Fire and Safety
The below mentioned table shows the amount of employees across all the across all the cadres who would have current interest in the fire and safety

programmes. The programmes with their respective amounts of interested employees are listed below.

Count of Fire and safety programs (Current)
Sr. No. Name of Program No. of Emp.
1 Regular refresher course 57
2 Basic Fire & Safety (extinguisher) 51
3 Advanced Fire & Safety 44
4 Fire Aid 52










CHAPTER-3



RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY









D) RESEARCH METHOLOGY

Research can be defined as “a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information in any branch of knowledge”. It is the pursuit of truth with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment. Research is, thus, an original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge making for its advancement.

3.1 OBJECTIVE OF RESEARCH

Research includes scientific and inductive thinking and it promotes the development of logical habits of thinking and organization. The purpose of research is to discover answer to question through the application of scientific procedures. The main aim of research is to find out the hidden truth, which has not been discovered yet. Through each research study has its own specific purpose, we may think of research objectives as falling not a number of following broad groupings:

• To gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it (Exploratory or formularize research studies)
• To portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group (Descriptive research studies)
• To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else. (Diagnostic Research Studies)
• To test a hypotheses of a casual relationship between variables (hypothesis testing research studies)
• This research is an amalgamation of both formularize as well as descriptive research, as it reflects on the present satisfaction level of the employees at MSETCL regarding the various training and development programmes being conducted here. In the process, it also aims to collect more detailed information on the subject of training and development itself.

3.2 RESEARCH APPROACHES

There are two basic approached to research, quantitative approach and the qualitative approach. The former involves the generation of data in quantitative form, which can be subjected to rigorous quantitative form, which

can be subjected to rigorous quantitative analysis in a formal and rigid manner. This approach is further sub-divided into inferential approach is to form a database form which to infer characteristic or relationship of a population. This usually means survey research where a sample of population is studied to determine its characteristics and it is then inferred that the population has the same characteristics.
Qualitative approach to research is concerned with subjective assessment of attitudes, opinions and behavior. Research in such a situation is a function of researcher’s insight and impressions. Such an approach to research generates results either in non-quantitative form or in the form, which re no subjected to rigorous quantitative analysis.
This research follows both the inferential quantitative and qualitative approach. The questionnaires circulated to collect the relevant information have been analyzed on the basis of rating given to each question and then, aggregate of the rating of all the questions of a group has been taken to find out the percentage of each response to that group.

3.3 RESEARCH PROCESS FOLLOWED

Research process consists of a series of actions or steps necessary to effectively carryout research and the desired sequencing of these steps. The various steps involved in a research are not mutually exclusive, not are they separate or distinct. However, the following order concerning various steps provides a useful procedural guideline regarding the research process and has been used to carry out this research.

3.4 REPAIRING THE RESEARCH DESIGN

The function of research design is to provide for the collecting of the relevant information and data with minimal expenditure of effort, time and money. But the way of achieving all this depends mainly on the purpose of the research. Here, the purpose of the study is both exploration and description.

3.5 THE MEANS OF OBTAINING INFORMATION

In this research case, a structure of questionnaire was used close-ended questions with the exception of twenty questions that required descriptive answers.
The time available for research was one year.

Explanation of the way in which selected means of obtaining information will be organized and the reasoning for the selection.

3.6 DETERMINING SAMPLE DESIGN

A sample design is a definite plant for obtaining a sample from the given population. It is determined before the data is collected.

3.6.1 Steps in sampling design
a) Population: all items under consideration in the field of enquiry, in this case, the employees of MSETCL.
b) Sample: The respondents that have been selected for the purpose of the study.
c) Sampling unit: the individual unit of the selected sample.
d) Sample frame: For this project, the employees’ lists of MSETCL are the sample frame.
e) Size of the sample: For the purpose of this study, a sample size of 120 was taken which is approximately 01% of the population.

3.7 Execution of the project:

This is a very important step in the research process. If the execution for the project proceeds along the correct lines, the data to be collected would be adequate and dependable. Hence it was necessary to see to it that the project proceeds in the right direction and in the fight manner within the time limits. The respondents were made aware of the purpose of the project and the probable benefit of expressing their frank views. The introduction accompanying each copy of the questionnaire made the things even clearer and ensured the required response.
In the questionnaire, the respondents were asked to express their views on the present scenario regarding the training and development programmes and their suggestions for future programmes so as to make them beneficial for the employees.










CHAPTER-4


TRAINING NEEDS
ANALYSIS









4 Training need analysis:

An analysis of training need is an essential requirement to the design of effective training. The purpose of training need analysis is to determine whether there is a gap between what is required for effective performance and present level of performance.

4.1 Why training need analysis:
Training need analysis is conducted to determine whether resources required are available or not. It helps to plan the budget of the company, areas where training is required, and also highlights the occasions where training might not be appropriate but requires alternate action.

4.2 Training Need arises at three levels:
Corporate need and training need are interdependent because the organization performance ultimately depends on the performance of its individual employee and its subgroup.

4.2.1 Organizational Level :
Training need analysis at organizational level focuses on strategic planning, business need, and goals. It starts with the assessment of internal environment of the organization such as, procedures, structures, policies, strengths, and weaknesses and external environment such as opportunities and threats.
After doing the SWOT analysis, weaknesses can be dealt with the training interventions, while strengths can further be strengthened with continued training. Threats can be reduced by identifying the areas where training is required. And, opportunities can be exploited by balancing it against costs.
For this approach to be successful, the HR department of the company requires to be involved in strategic planning. In this planning, HR develops strategies to be sure that the employees in the organization have the required Knowledge, Skills, and Attributes (KSAs) based on the future KSAs requirements at each level.

4.2.2 Individual Level –
Training need analysis at individual level focuses on each and every individual in the organization. At this level, the organization checks whether an

employee is performing at desired level or the performance is below expectation. If the difference between the expected performance and actual performance comes out to be positive, then certainly there is a need of training.
However, individual competence can also be linked to individual need. The methods that are used to analyze the individual need are:
• Appraisal and performance review
• Peer appraisal
• Competency assessments
• Subordinate appraisal
• Client feedback
• Customer feedback
• Self-assessment or self-appraisal

4.2.3 Operational Level –

Training Need analysis at operational level focuses on the work that is being assigned to the employees. The job analyst gathers the information on whether the job is clearly understood by an employee or not. He gathers this information through technical interview, observation, psychological test; questionnaires asking the closed ended as well as open ended questions, etc. Today, jobs are dynamic and keep changing over the time. Employees need to prepare for these changes. The job analyst also gathers information on the tasks needs to be done plus the tasks that will be required in the future, based on the information collected; training Need analysis (TNA) is done.

4.3 Training Design:


4.4 Importance and concept of training

“Training” is the most important function that directly contributes to the development of human resources. This also happens to be quite a Neglected function in most of the Organization Recent Surveys on the Investments made by the Indian Organizations on training indicates that a large number of organization do not even spend 0.1 percent of their budget On training. Many organizations do not even have a training department. If Human resources have to be developed; the organization should create Conditions in which people acquire new knowledge and skill and develop Healthy pattern of behavior and styles. This is possible through personal Guidance as well as institutional training.
Training is an important mechanism for workers overall Development and growth of workers. The direction of training efforts needs to be focused not only on job skills, but inter-personal skills, collaborative Skills and team building skills, besides this, skills in problem solving and Self management are also required. Routine training programmes for up grading only technical competences of workers have limited value for Overall growth and personality development of the worker.
Training is major manpower management function No Organization can afford not to train its employees, regardless of his previous education, training and experience. He has to be introduced into the work environment of his new employer inducted and taught to perform His assigned tasks in a new milieu.
Moreover, changing technology and increasing automation in offices, factories and in almost all institutions is bringing about redesigned and altered job. It cannot be limited to retraining for new or altered work methods. People are constantly being “trained” and retrained by the way their superiors and other employees associate them with work, and find that they are employees associate them with work, and find that they are also appraised formally or informally by their peers and superiors.
Training is a part of management development and also a form of organizational goals and objectives. If the employees perceive training as a means to achieve their personal goals at work, they will welcome such opportunities.
Some essentials may be borne in mind. First those who have to be trained should want to learn, must have motivation to improve their job performance or to learn new skills and techniques of a higher degree second motivation to learn

is always increased by the prospect of some reward like promotion or a better job after the conclusion of training. Third the process of learning has to be guided by a trainer or teacher whether he is learning correctly or not sometime known as “feedback” fourth learning is best accomplished by doing rather than by listening or reading fifth the contents of learning programme should be systematically evolved in stage with feedback and correction at each stage if necessary.
While training could be useful in improving any transformation process that takes place in terms of present inputs and outputs the training has to be related both to the needs of the organization and those of the individuals for instance diversification of product lines new types of skills that jobs my require, individual employee development through induction training or job orientation
While learning theory is much more complex, these are some elementary principles which underlie training generally in all organization. It has been noticed that the capacity of the human mind and brain to develop are very high, and only a portion of it is used in most jobs.
Many researchers have estimated that the average employee in organization is working at much loss than his capacity potential. If these employees can be properly motivated they could work at 80% to 90% of their capacity. Behavioral science concepts like motivations and good human relation should be used. Training could be one of the main instruments to attain such improvement.
While employee training to improve skills and knowledge to make them better equipped or individual growth is not and end in itself. Organizational growth needs to be integrated with their individual growth. The main concern should be for the viability of the organization or the enterprise.
An effective organization should have such individuals who are able to take up increased responsibilities since the organization has to develop their capabilities for higher jobs and contribution towards organizational goals.
Behavioral scientist has suggested that organizational effectiveness is dependant on three objectives:-
1) To achieve its goals.
2) To maintain itself internally.
3) To adopt its environment.
Apart from these goals the circumstances which underline the need for training, while the present output can be improved by enhancing skills and


knowledge and by improving efficiency of the enterprise, some times the technology of the organization also changes. For instance there have been term does advances in industrial technology in recent decades. To keep up with advanced industrialization and automation also make it necessary
Those employees are trained in new skills processes and production techniques etc.

4.5 IDENTIFYING TRAINING NEEDS

The increasing pace of technological change is perhaps the biggest single impetus for training programme. In the first half of this century skilled workers acquired their abilities through apprenticeship and college courses which equipped them with knowledge and skills sufficient for their entire working lives while unskilled employees did jobs requiring little or no training. To day however few people can expect to do the same work in the same way for more than few years and the numbers of jobs available for totality untrained workers are limited. You should be able to identify training needs from:-

1. Under performance by subordinates evidenced by low outputs lack of Initiative bad decisions or general incompetence.
2. The acquisition of new and unfamiliar equipment or the introduction of new working methods.
3. Perusal of subordinates’ job specification to identify gaps between what they are doing and what they should be doing.
4. Analysis of the strengths and weakness of your organization.

Further information should be available from the organizations human resource plan which should incorporate forecasts for the supply and demand of various categories of staff and labour. The plan will compare employees current skills with those expected to be needed in the future and highlight deficiencies. Some organization prepares skill inventories classifying employees according to their qualification technical knowledge experience and special abilities. Such date needs to be comprehensive detailed held in a form that allows easy cross referencing and regularly updated.

While training could be useful in improving any transformation process that takes place in terms of present inputs and outputs the training has to be related both the needs of the organization and those of the individuals for instance diversification of product lines new types of skills that jobs may

require individual employee development through induction, training or job orientation etc.

For identifying training needs, some researchers emphasize three factors:-
1) Organization analysis
2) Task analysis
3) Manpower Analysis.

4.5.1 Organization Analysis

It is systematic effort to identify and understand exactly what type of Training shall be required. It involves a total analysis of the organization Structure objectives its human resources and future plans etc.
The first step in organization analysis is achieving a clear understanding of the short term and long term goals and objectives of the organization or enterprises. The management would have to examine what are the specific training Inputs that would contribute towards the achievements of these objectives.

For organization analysis there essential requirements.

1. Whether adequate number of personnel are available to ensure the fulfillment of the goals?
2. Whether the personnel performance is up to the required standards?
3. Whether the organizational environment in different departments etc. is conductive to fulfillment of tasks?

4.5.2 Task analysis

Here the focus is on the job or task. Analysis of the job and its various conditions will indicate the skill and training required to perform the job according to the standard. The standards of performance have to be set for each job so that it is performed at the desired level of output and quality. Moreover the methods and the components of the job, have also to be properly designed. The main object is to obtain all possible information that is available about the nature of the task, its components and standards of the performances to be set. This information would be useful in designing the training programme for employees.






4.5.3 Manpower Analysis

The total manpower environment of the organization has to be carefully analyzed in fact, there are three major aspects. The internal environment of the organization. The environment of the sector of economic activities i.e. Government, public sector or private sector, and the environment of the economy which influences the training needs of manpower in that organization.

If the organization has a skill inventory of the manpower, i.e. a detailed write up of education, experience and job performance of its employees, it can analyzed same, and draw up a plan depending on its own projections for future requirements.






















CHAPTER-5


DATA BASE STRUCTURE
I.E.
TABLES &GRAPHS






TABLE 1

QUESTION NO. (1) Education:
(1) Below SSS (2) up to HSS (3) Diploma (4) Graduate
(5) Post-graduate

SHOWING THE EDUCATION DISTRIBUTION OF EMPLOYEES

EDUCATION NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE
Below SSC 55 43%
Up to HSS 23 21%
Diploma 28 25%
Graduate 04 3%
Post-Graduate 10 8%
TOTAL 120 100%

CHART 1

SHOWING THE AGE DISTRIBUTION OF EMPLOYEES

CONCEPT: Education of employees is the most important factor, which indicates the knowledge of the employees.


TABLE 2

QUESTION NO. (2) Length of service
(1) Less than 5 yrs. (2) 5 to 10 yrs. (3) 10 to 20yrs. (4) Above 20 yrs.

SHOWING THE RESPONSE RESPONDENTS ABOUT THE LENGTH OF SERVICE

RESPONSE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE
Less than 5 yrs. 10 9%
5 to 11 yrs. 30 25%
10 to 20 yrs. 45 38%
Above 20 yrs. 35 28%
TOTAL 120 100%

CHART 2
SHOWING THE RESPONSE OF RESPONDENTS ABOUT THE LENGTH OF SERVICE

CONCEPT : It plays major role in employee’s growth and development, commitment towards the job.


TABLE 3

QUESTION NO. (3). Have you undergone any training?
(1) Yes (2) No

SHOWING THE RESPONSE RESPONDENTS ABOUT UNDERGONE ANY TRAINING?

RESPONCE NO.OF RESPONDENTS PRECENTAGE
YES 98 82%
NO 22 18%
TOTAL 120 100%

CHART 3

HAVE YOU UNDERGONE ANY TRAINING?

CONCEPT: Investment on training need to be measured to know whether it is gaining the expected returns. An attempt was made to know the respondents opinion about the same.




TABLE 4

QUESTION NO. (4) If yes, what type?
(1) Technical (2) Managerial account (3) General (4) Specialized


SHOWING THE RESPONSE RESPONDENTS ABOUT TYPE OF TRAINING:

RESPONSE No. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE
Technical 60 50%
Managerial Account 20 17%
General 28 23%
Specialized 12 10%
TOTAL 120 100%

CHART 4
SHOWING THE TYPE OF TRAINING:

CONCEPT: Training Programme is a most important part of the company. It plays a major role in employees’ growth, personal development and interest or commitment towards work.




TABLE 5

QUESTION NO. (5) Duration of training received:
(1) 1 week (2) 2 weeks (3) More than 2 weeks

SHOWING THE RESPONSE RESPONDENTS ABOUT TRAINING DURATION:

RESPONSE No. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE
1 week 80 67%
2 weeks 15 13%
More than 2 weeks 25 20%
TOTAL 120 100%

CHART 5

SHOWING THE TRAINING DURATION:






CONCEPT: Satisfaction of the learner is the most important factor in Training programme. It plays major role in employee’s growth and development, commitment towards the job.






TABLE 6

QUESTION NO. (6) Was the training helpful to perform the job in a better way?
(1) Yes (2) No (3) Can't Say

SHOWING THE RESPONSE RESPONDENTS ABOUT TRAINING HELPFUL TO PERFORM JOB IN BETTER WAY:

RESPONSE NO.OF. RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE
Yes 98 82%
No 9 7%
Can’t say 13 11%
TOTAL 120 100%

CHART 6

SHOWING THE TRAINING HELPFUL TO PERFORM JOB IN BETTER WAY:


CONCEPT: Training should be a regular activity; it has to be given regularly to the employees to enable them to carry out their job in the required manner without any deviation.



TABLE 7

QUESTION NO. (7) Do you feel you are motivated to excel after training?
(1) Yes (2) No (3) Can't Say

SHOWING THE RESPONSE RESPONDENTS ABOUT MOTIVATION TO EXCEL AFTER TRAINING?


RESPONSE NO.OF. RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE
Yes 85 71%
No 18 15%
Can’t say 17 14%
TOTAL 120 100%

CHART 7

Do you feel you are motivated to excel after training?



CONCEPT:A trainee has to know the objectives of the training programme before the training program. From this he will know that what he is going to learn, need to achieve out of it.



TABLE 8

QUESTION NO. (8) If no, have you ever brought to the knowledge of higher
officer orally or in writing?
(1) Yes (2) No (3) Can't Say

SHOWING THE RESPONSE RESPONDENTS ABOUT NO MOTIVATION AFTER TRAINING TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF HIGHER OFFICER ORALLY OR IN WRITING?

RESPONSE NO.OF. RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE
Yes 24 20%
No 65 54%
Can’t say 31 26%
TOTAL 120 100%

CHART 8

IF NO, HAVE YOU EVER BROUGHT TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF HIGHER OFFICER ORALLY OR IN WRITING?






CONCEPT: Trainee’s feedback is most important tool which helps the organization to evaluate the Training standards, needs. If the trainees’ feedback is considered with necessary action plan, they will be motivated and do the best job.





TABLE 9

QUESTION NO. (9) Do you need to undergo refresher Training?
(1) Yes (2) No (3) Can't Say


SHOWING THE RESPONSE RESPONDENTS ABOUT REFRESHER TRAINING?

RESPONSE NO.OF. RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE
Yes 78 65%
No 23 19%
Can’t say 19 16%
TOTAL 120 100%

CHART 9

Do you need to undergo refresher training?

CONCEPT: Skills and efficiency learned in the Training need to be applied in the relevant job execution.




TABLE 10

QUESTION NO. (10) If ‘yes’ to above, of which type of training you need most?
(1) Tech (2) Managerial account (3) General (4) Specialized

SHOWING THE RESPONSE RESPONDENTS ABOUT TYPE OF TRAINING NEED MOST?

RESPONSE NO.OF. RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE
Technical 62 52%
Managerial account 25 20%
General 19 16%
Specialised 14 12%
TOTAL 120 100%

CHART 10

If ‘yes’ to above, of which type of training you need most?

CONCEPT: Satisfaction is the most important part of Training Programme. It plays a major role in employees’ growth, personal development and interest or commitment towards work.




TABLE 11

QUESTION NO. (11) Would you prefer to learn at Work place?
(1) Yes (2) No (3) Can't Say

SHOWING THE RESPONSE RESPONDENTS ABOUT PREFER TO LEARN AT WORK PLACE?

RESPONSE NO.OF. RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE
Yes 86 72%
No 22 18%
Can’t say 12 10%
TOTAL 120 100%

CHART 11

Would you prefer to learn at work place?:







CONCEPT: Knowledge is the important factor for any kind of learning. It gives an idea to employees about the subject matter.






TABLE 12

QUESTION NO. (12) Whether the training helps in your own development or
changes in your attitude?
(1) Yes (2) No

SHOWING THE RESPONSE RESPONDENTS ABOUT THE TRAINING HELPS IN YOUR OWN DEVELOPMENT OR CHANGE IN YOUR ATTITUDE?

RESPONSE NO.OF. RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE
Yes 98 82%
No 22 18%
TOTAL 120 100%

CHART 12

Whether the training helps in your own development or changes in your attitude?








CONCEPT: Training helps in getting promotion also, if an employee is undergoes training; he may get promoted to higher level.




TABLE 13

QUESTION NO. (13) Are your good works appreciated & encouraged or recognized?
(1) Yes (2) No (3) Can't Say

SHOWING THE RESPONSE RESPONDENTS ABOUT GOOD WORK APPRECIATED & ENCOURAGED OR RECOGNIZED?

RESPONSE NO.OF. RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE
Yes 73 61%
No 23 19%
Can’t say 24 20%
TOTAL 120% 100%

CHART 13

Are your good works appreciated & encouraged or recognized?










CONCEPT: The management support should be extended to the trainees; it can motivate them and develops confidence in handling various kinds of job.




TABLE 14

QUESTION NO. (14) Do you think you get an opportunity for career growth?
(1) Yes (2) No (3) Can't Say

SHOWING THE RESPONSE RESPONDENTS ABOUT GETTING AN OPPORTUNITY FOR CAREER GROWTH?

RESPONSE NO.OF. RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE
Yes 77 64%
No 23 19%
Can’t say 20 17%
TOTAL 120 100%

CHART 14

Do you think you get an opportunity for career growth?



CONCEPT: The management support should be extended to the trainees; it can motivate them and develops confidence in handling various kinds of job.




TABLE 15

QUESTION NO. (15) Do you fee you might be rewarded for outstanding performance?
(1) Yes (2) No (3) Can't Say

SHOWING THE RESPONSE RESPONDENTS ABOUT REWARDS FOR OUTSTANDING PERFORMANCE?

RESPONSE NO.OF. RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE
YES 68 57%
NO 24 20%
Can’t say 28 23%
TOTAL 120 100%

CHART 15

Do you feel you might be rewarded for outstanding performance?



CONCEPT: The facilities provided during the training have major impact. It should have professional environment and support to the Trainees.




TABLE 16

QUESTION NO. (16) Is the working environment free & frank?
(1) Yes (2) No (3) Can't Say


SHOWING THE RESPONSE RESPONDENTS ABOUT WORKING ENVIRONMENT FREE AND FRANK?

RESPONSE NO.OF. RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE
Yes 84 70%
No 12 10%
Can’t say 24 20%
TOTAL 120 100%

CHART 16

Is the working environment free and frank?



CONCEPT: The freedom of expression of doubts is which in turn will affect the productivity of the organization, if no freedom is given then trainee might do some mistakes in while working in Laboratories, Machines and executing Shipments.



TABLE 17

QUESTION NO. (17)What you feel is needed to perform still in a better way?
(a) Training (b) Motivation (c) Recognition (d) Reward

SHOWING THE RESPONSE RESPONDENTS ABOUT THE GRADATION OF TRAINING DEPARTMENT?

RESPONSE NO.OF. RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE
Very good 58 48%
Average 36 30%
No comment 24 20%
TOTAL 120 100%

CHART 17

How will you grade the training department?



CONCEPT: Regular training program keep the employees undated and intact about the knowledge of various hurdles arising during the job process.



TABLE 18

QUESTION NO. (18) What you feel is needed to perform still in a better way?
a) Training b) Motivation c) Recognition d) Reward


SHOWING THE RESPONSE RESPONDENTS ABOUT WHAT FEELING NEEDED TO PERFORM STILL IN BETTER WAY?

RESPONSE NO.OF. RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE
Training 45 38%
Motivation 32 27%
Recognition 27 22%
Reward 16 13%
TOTAL 120 100%

CHART 18

What you feel is needed to perform still in a better way?










CONCEPT: The freedom of expression of doubts is which in turn will affect the productivity of the organization, if no freedom is given then Trainee might do some mistakes in while working in Laboratories, Machines and executing Shipments.








CHAPTER-6


ANALYSIS
& INTERPRETATION OF
DATA


Sr. No. Question Analysis Interpretation of data
01 Education
(1) Below SSS
(2) up to HSS
(3) Diploma
(4) Graduate
(5) Post-graduate
It is found that 43% of the employees are below SSC group, followed by 21% in the Education of up to HSC, 25% from the Diploma, while 3% from the graduate and 8% employees are postgraduate. It is found that 3% of the employees fall under the group of Below SSC and above who enjoy more experience with regard to their responsibility.

02 Length of service
(1) Less than 5 yrs.
(2) 5 to 10 yrs.
(3) 10 to 20yrs.
(4) Above 20 yrs.
the length of service it is found that 9% of the respondents are less than 5 Years age group, followed by 25% in the age group of 5 to 11yrs, 38% from the 10 to20 yrs, while 28% from the age group of above 20 yrs. They can conclude that majority of the respondents had 10 to 20 yrs. Age group.


03 Have you undergone any training? (1) Yes
(2) No It is found that 82% of the respondents say ‘Yes’ that they had undergone training last year whereas 18% says ‘No’. They can conclude that majority of the respondents had undergone training program in the last year.
04 If yes, what type? 1. Technical
2. Managerial account
3. General Specialized 50% of the employees are selected Technical, 17% by Managerial Account, 23% by the General, While 10% says as Specialized Training. The 50% of employees are selected technically or the training programme.

05 Duration of training received:
(1) 1 week (2) 2 weeks (3) More than 2 weeks

The above chart shows that 67% training programme are 1 week, whereas 13% are 2 weeks and 20% are more than 2 weeks training programme.

Thus employees are satisfied with the Training duration extended by the MSETCL since there is a particular training period for employees since training is given for up gradation of technical, new skills and knowledge.


Sr. No. Question Analysis Interpretation of data
6 Was the training helpful to perform the job in a better way? (1) Yes (2) No (3) Can't Say From the above table it is clear that of the 82% of respondents says that they undergo training regularly and 7% say that they don’t receive training and only 11% can’t says anything Thus, it is found that at MSETCL, training is a regular and continuous process based on the training needs and general guideline structure.
07
Do you feel you are motivated to excel after training? (1) Yes (2) No (3) Can't Say
It shows that out of 71% respondents accepted that they are motivated to excel after training, while balance 15% says ‘No’ and 14% are between ‘Yes’ and ‘No’. The most of the employees are motivated to excel after Training objective when being selected.

08
If no, have you ever brought to the knowledge of higher
Officer orally or in writing
(1) Yes (2) No (3) Can't Say
It clearly shows that 20% of the respondents say YES, their feedback is considered, and while 54% says that their feedback is considered to some extent and balance 26% says that they do not know. It is found to clearly that Trainees feedback is given important in MSETCL.


09 Do you need to undergo refresher Training? (1) Yes
(2) No
(3) Can't Say
It is found that 65% of the respondents say that yes refresher training is needed, while 19% says that ‘No’ need and 16% says that they do not know. It can be concluded that the majority of respondents accepts that the Training helps in improving their skills and execute their job efficiently.
10 If ‘yes’ to above, of which type of raining you need most?
(1) Technical
(2)Managerial
account
(3) General
(4) Specialized 52% of the employees are selected Technical, 20% by Managerial Account, 16% by the General, While 12% says as Specialized Training this type of training is need most. The 52% of employees are selected technically or the training program.




Sr. No. Question Analysis Interpretation of data
11 Would you prefer to learn at Work place?
(1) Yes (2) No
(3) Can't Say
it is found that 72% of the respondents say that “yes’ I would prefer to learn at work place and 18% says ‘No’, while 10% says that can’t say. It is found that the majority of respondents saying that they would learn more things at work place.
12 Whether the training helps in your own development or changes in your attitude? (1) Yes (2) No It is found that 82% of the respondents say that ‘Yes’ training helps in own development and changes attitude, while 18% says that ‘No’. They can conclude that majority of respondents are confident about that the training will helps for own development or change attitude.
13 Are your good works appreciated & encouraged recognized? (1) Yes (2) No (3) Can't Say It is clear that 61% of the respondent says that ‘Yes’ good work is always appreciated and encouraged the employees, while remaining 19% saying ‘No’, while 20% says that they not know. It is found that majority of the respondents says that good work is appreciated and encouraged or recognized.

14 Do you think you get an opportunity for career growth?
(1) Yes
(2) No
(3) Can't Say 64% employees says that ‘Yes’ training gives an opportunity for career growth and 19% are of the opinion that there is ‘No’ any career opportunity and 17% are can’t says anything. It is clear that majority of respondents says that training gives an opportunity for career growth.
15 Do you feel you might be rewarded for outstanding Performance? (1) Yes (2) No (3) Can't Say 90% of the respondents are of the opinion that the existing facility is good.
It is clear majority the respondents say that they are satisfied with the existing facilities provided during the Training.



Sr. No. Question Analysis Interpretation of data
16 Is the working environment free & frank? (1)Yes (2)No (3) Can't Say It is found that 70% of the respondents say that employees need environment free and rank, while 10% says that ‘No’ and 20% can’t says. Majority of the respondents are need working environment free and frank.

17 What you feel is needed to perform still in a better way? (a) Training (b) Motivation (c) Recognition (d) Reward It is found that 48% of the respondents say that training is very good, 30% are of the opinion that it is average and 20% says no comment. Majority of the respondents are showing positive opinion about the training and they give grade to training department as very good.
18 What you feel is needed to perform still in a better way
(a) Training
(b) Motivation
(c) Recognition
(d) Reward It is found that 97% of the respondents say freedom of expression in clearing their doubts is good, while 3% says average.
Majority of the respondents are highly satisfied with the freedom extended to them for expressing their doubts for clearance.












CHAPTER-7

FINDING,
CONCLUSION
& RECOMMENDATION/
SUGGESTIONS,
LIMITATION





7.1 FINDINGS

• Training needs Analysis at MSETCL are aimed at systematic development of knowledge, skills, attitude and team work.

• The majority of employees fall under age group of 45 years and above who enjoys more experience with regards to their responsibility.

• Maximum respondents have undergone training program in the last year. but it is only showing 66% of the respondents are satisfied with the training duration.

• The employees are not aware about the criteria of selection for Training. 42% of the employees are selected technically for the training programme.

• The trainee has to know the objectives of training before selection. Only 87% of the employees are aware about the objective of training when being selected.

• Knowledge is the important factor for any kind of learning. It gives an idea to employee about the subject matter. 40% said that the training imparted is only helping to some extent in gaining the knowledge, not to the full extent.

• Training is given to employees by recognizing their area of deficiency. No training is imparted to the employees on the basis of giving promotion upon completion.

• The return of investment made on the training and activity are not measured properly. Employees are feeling that the return on investment made for training is more than the expected gain.

7.2 CONCLUSIONS

An analysis of training need is an essential requirement to the design of effective training. The purpose of training need analysis is to determine whether there is a gap between what is required for effective performance and present level of performance.

[[[[[

A detail study of the Training Need Analysis infers that-

• The procedure is overall effective in order to satisfy the company’s requirements.





• Out of the surveyed employees, most of the employees have undergone various types of training.

• Most of the trainings conducted were technical followed by specialized trainings.

• It is inferred that the technical trainings took more than weeks duration where as others were conducted for 1 week or so.

• The trainings provided were useful to perform the job in a better way.

• Most of the employees feel motivated after attending training. However, many of the employees have not communicated to their seniors about the lack of motivation.

• Many employees would like to go for refresher training.


• Most of the employees have given positive feedback for receiving the training at the workplace. However some employees preferred training at the training centre.

• The employees have responded positively towards their own development or changes in their attitude after attending the training.

• Most of the employees feel that their efforts are appreciated, encouraged & recognized.

• Very few employees feel that they get an opportunity for career growth and almost 56% of the employee gave the response that they don’t get an opportunity for career growth.

• Only 34% of the employees feel that they would be rewarded for outstanding performance whereas a major group of employees feel that they will not be rewarded for outstanding performance.

• Most of the employees feel that the working environment is free and frank..

7.3 RECOMMENDATIONS/SUGGESTIONS

1. The training needs must be analyzed before imparting any kind of training.

2. The effectiveness of the training program should be evaluated in the performance appraisal of the employees.







3. The feedback about the training program must be collected from the employees after the completion of training. The new skills and knowledge acquired by the employee should also be assessed.

4. The employee should be motivated to perform the job in a better way to achieve the objective of imparting training.

5. The managerial skill development program should also be encouraged along with the technical training.

6. Effective rewards system should be implemented to encourage the outstanding performance of employees.

7. Some training programs should be arranged at the work place whenever possible.

7.4 LIMITATIONS

Although there were very few limitations to enlist but every research work carried out has to face some limitations.

• Employees were busy in their routine schedule, which was a limitation in collection of the data.

• Few employees were hesitating to provide the actual information.
Required data was not available on several occasions because few of the concerned persons were on leave and could not be contacted.

• The survey conducted was more objective and completely based on the views of the respondent.

• The accuracy of the data depends largely on the correctness of the information provided by the respondent.

• Due to the busy schedule of most of the employees, workload, they were unable to concentrate completely on the questionnaire and the interviews. Thus leading to probability of error.

• Due to the large strength of the organization, random sampling method is used to collect the information which may lead to the errors.









CHAPTER-8


APPENDICS
&
BIBLIOGRAPHY






8.1 APPENDICS
QUESTIONNAIRE
PART – I (PERSONAL)
1. Name: ………………………… 2. Work place: ……………………………
3. Designation: ………………… 4. Pay Group: I / II / III / IV
5. Age…………………
6. Education:
1) Below SSS 2) up to HSS 3) Diploma 4) Graduate 5) Post- graduate

7. Length of service
1) Less than 5 yrs. 2) 5 to 10 yrs. 3) 10 to 20yrs. 4) Above 20 yrs.

PART – II (Training)
1. Have you undergone any training?
1) Yes 2) No

2. If yes, what type?
1) Tech 2) Managerial account 3) General 4) Specialized

3. Duration of training received:
1) 1 week 2) 2 weeks 3) More than 2 weeks

4. Was the training helpful to perform the job in a better way?
1) Yes 2) No 3) Can't Say

5. Do you feel you are motivated to excel after training?
1) Yes 2) No 3) Can't Say
6. If no, have you ever brought to the knowledge of higher officer orally or in writing?
1) Yes 2) No 3) Can't Say
7. Do you need to undergo refresher Training?
1) Yes 2) No 3) Can't Say

8. If ‘yes’ to above, of which type of training you need most?
1) Tech 2) Managerial account 3) General 4) Specialized

9. Would you prefer to learn at Work place?
1) Yes 2) No 3) Can't Say

10. Whether the training helps in your own development or changes in your attitude?
1) Yes 2) No

PART – III (General comments)

1. Are your good works appreciated & encouraged or recognized?
1) Yes 2) No 3) Can't Say

2. Do you think you get an opportunity for career growth?
1) Yes 2) No 3) Can't Say

3. Do you fee you might be rewarded for outstanding performance?
1) Yes 2) No 3) Can't Say

4. Is the working environment free & frank?
1) Yes 2) No 3) Can't Say

5. How will you grade the training department?
1) Very good 2) Average 3) No comment

6. What you feel is needed to perform still in a better way?
a) Training b) Motivation c) Recognition d) Reward

PART – IV (suggestion in brief)
a) Training- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
b) strategy- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
c) Motivation - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Name & signature of investigator: - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Date of interview : - - - - - - - -- -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -





8.2 BIBIOLOGRAPHY

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT – V. S. RAO

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT – GARY DESSLER

STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT – SRINIVAS R KANDULA

HUMAN RESOURCE & PERSONNEL MANGEMENT - BY K. ASHWATHAPPA.

REINVENTING TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT - BY RONALD R. SIMS

INTERNET

www.humanlinks.com

www.mahatransco.in

www.citehr.com

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