Monday, 13 June 2011



Chemistry and Manufacture

Laundry And Cleaning :
Preparation of soap cold process method is used for the production of toilet soaps and washing laundry. In this way the process omylivaniya done without boiling fats with caustic lye. All of these soaps are prepared with coconut and palm kernel oil, which have the ability saponify in the cold with stirring e strong alkali metal. Added in small amounts of other fats (lard, palm oil, rosin, etc.) in the presence of coconut and palm kernel oils also have the ability to omylivatsya in the cold. When cooking in this manner should be washed serious attention paid to the temperature pribavlyaemyh fats, as well as the exact amount required for saponification of caustic alkalis. Here are recipes for some of the main varieties, production of toilet soaps is discussed below.

Coconut Soap :
Coconut Oil 10 kg
Sodium Hydroxide Solution at 36 ° Bome 10 kg
Salt 18 ° to Bome to 10 kg
Sodium silicate 30 ° Bome 12 kg

Spreading coconut oil and when it has cooled to 38 °, with constant stirring, pour a thin stream of 6 kg of sodium hydroxide. The remaining 4 kg mixed with salt solution and added to the soap mass. Thoroughly mix and add a solution of liquid glass. When the masses take a homogeneous, with no lumps form, it is poured into molds.

Yellow rosin Soap
Sala 25 kg
Coconut oil 10 kg
Rosin 15 kg
Talc 10 kg
Sodium hydroxide solution at 38 ° Bome 30 kg
Melted fat and rosin and talc added. The mixture is stirred, cooled to 50 ° and poured into a barrel. Treated with sodium hydroxide (at a temperature of 20-22 °) and mix thoroughly with the entire mass. When the soap becomes a monotonous caseous mass, its draw it out in the form.
White Soap
Fat 30 kg
Coconut oil 20 kg
Sodium hydroxide solution at 38 ° Bome 27 kg
Talc 30 kg
Coconut oil 40 kg
Sodium hydroxide solution at 38 ° Bome 25 kg
Talc 12 kg
Soluble glass 37 ° for Bome 25 kg
Preparation - as above.

Marble Soap
Fat 5 kg
Coconut oil 15 kg
Sodium hydroxide solution 25 ° Bome 20 kg
Sodium silicate 37 ° for Bome 30 kg
Soap scraps 5 kg
Waters 4.5 liter
Color: Ultramarine 50г

Dissolve the soap scraps in the water and add ultramarine. The temperature of the ink mixture is brought to 50 ° C and treated with sodium hydroxide. Mix well and add water glass. Separately, melt fat at 35 ° rushed to the first mixture and mix thoroughly. When the soap curdle, pour into a mold and cover boards.

Rosin Palm soap
Rosin 10 kg
Palm kernel oil to 10 kg
Sodium hydroxide solution at 37 ° Bome 10 kg
Talc 2 kg

Spreading palm kernel oil and rosin are added. The mixture is heated until the resin not disperse. Separately heated solution of sodium hydroxide to 80 ° and add talc. It is well mixed and add cooled to 65 ° oil, mix well, cover the pot tightly and leave for an hour alone. Then, mix well all the soap mass and poured into molds.


Indonesia is famous for its rich spices. As a result of it all, Indonesia was colonized by the Portuguese, Dutch and Japanese, to take the spices for his own use and the remainder sold to countries that need it. Especially the Dutch results from the sale of spices used to stem the sea and build their country. This is a bit of the history of the Indonesian people, how great price and value of spices.

The benefits of spices in addition to the field of culinary, health as well as for the field of beauty (cosmetics). Spices beauty in various applications such as body scrub, body odor remover, etc. slimming.

Special to spice bath soap, spices work to tighten, smoothing and skin cleansers and body odor remover. Spices are a lot of grown up around us so easily in the can / be found. Spices are contained in the soap as an additive and has the advantage of the soap itself.
Incorporate materials into soap spice there are two ways of spices, dried and then ground into powder or spice it up in small slices and then boiled and filtered with a soft cloth to be taken just dilution.

Corn flour is the best choice to help open the pores of soap on the skin, then clean the excess oil on skin. Corn starch granules capable of "scratching" (Scrub), dirt and oils from the skin surface.

The composition of the herb soap making:

1. Coconut Oil 100 ml
2. NaOHq
3. Stearic acid
4. Spices to taste
5. 5 g corn flour
6. NaCl
7. Lemongrass oil to taste
8. Perfume to taste
9. Water

Equipment needed: container, thermometer and stirrer

Procedure of manufacture
1. A coconut oil in the container is heated about 95 degrees lift
2. NaOH + water in container B are heated less than 70 degree lift
3. (1) + (2) in the container B mix
4. Melt the stearic acid in the container A (former container no. 1)
5. (3) + (4) remain in the container B stir over heat
6. (5) + corn flour mix
7. (6) + NaCl stir
8. (7) + Spices stir and lift
9. (8) warm + Perfume
10. Ready to enter the mold; wait overnight to harden his own soap.

Wearing Your Own Bath Soap Reason :-

1. Homemade soaps not only clean, because the oil contains about 25% glycerin. Please note on separation of oil into fatty acids and glycerin. In the industry in the manufacture of soap using fatty acids while the glycerin sold separately because the price is more expensive. As a result, industrial soap can make the skin become scaly / dry when used for bathing. The function of glycerin can moisturize and soften the skin, as well as soothing and lubricate the skin cells.
2. Quality soap homemade soap which can exceed the purchase in the market, certainly cheaper homemade.
3. By making your own you can get what they want, good filler material, additional materials, shape, color, and fragrance.
4. Making soap itself is very fun and full of creativity.
5. That certainly makes it easy soap.

In some European countries and Russia there are many or show Soap. Workshop is a kind of soap to show home industry to customer / visitors to see first hand how the process of making soap from start to become soap. Spices provided so many kinds and each herb has their own goodness for the body and skin. Subscribers just choose the spices which, to put into the composition of soap (Source from a friend who had lived in Russia precisely in Moscow). From soap making ingredients, many ingredients of spices specially imported from outside the country.

1. -To make a BASIC WHITE SOAP, follow instructions for this recipe:
• 125 g caustic soda
• 500 mL water
• 750 mL coconut oil
• 5 teaspoons castor oil

1) Add caustic soda to water and stir until soda dissolves. The solution becomes hot so set aside until it is lukewarm and then add the oils. Stir for a few minutes until the mixture is well combined.
2) Pour into shallow mould lined with damp calico, cover and leave for 24 hours to harden. Cut into cakes and store for 6 weeks before use.


Contrary to what most people believe, soap making isn't that hard to do if you are equipped with sufficient information about it. As chemists would put it, soap is what you get when you combine oils or fats with a strong alkali solution (more popularly called lye). This process is what soap makers call saponification.

So why is soap fit for cleaning dirt off our bodies you ask? Ask yourself this question. What happens when you use soap on a soiled surface? The soap "loosens" the dirt particles and makes it easier for rinsing. By analogy, soap molecules are like two-poled magnets. One end holds on to water molecules, the other end holds on to grease particles. The latter end makes it possible for those grease molecules to be dissolved in water, which under normal circumstances would be near impossible because water and oil don't mix.

Back to saponification. When people hear the phrase "soap making" they immediately associate it with lye. Quite frankly, essential soap making does involve the handling of lye but there are actually 4 basic methods of crafting soap. Two of which will require you to handle lye solution while the other two won't. Allow me to give you a quick overview of those methods.

Cold Process

This is probably the most commonly used soap making method. This involves making soap from scratch using fats or oils, and lye. It takes more time to create cold process soaps than it is to make soaps through the other methods. This method provides for a certain degree of freedom when designing recipes. The following are the Pros and Cons of cold process soap making:
• You have control over which ingredients to use in your soap.
• Your soap is made from scratch.
• You can create recipes that serve various purposes, like anti-acne soap or whitening soap, since you are allowed a bit of flexibility in the choice of ingredients.
• This method requires that you handle lye. You'd have to learn how to create lye solution and how to handle or store it safely.
• May not be so appealing to beginners since this process requires a LOT of utensils and materials to start.
• This method takes time to complete. Especially since you will need to wait for 2-6 weeks before it's safe to use your soap.
• More cleanup to do afterwards.
• Requires exact measurements of lye and fat amounts and computing their ratio, using saponification charts to ensure that the finished product is mild and skin-friendly.
• You need to use EXACT measurements of fat and lye and you also need to compute the right ratio between them. You'll need to learn how to use SAP charts and lye calculators to make sure that your soap is skin-friendly.

Hot Process

This is where the saponification stage in cold process is sped up by boiling lye and fat together at 80 to 100 degrees Celsius. The mixture is stirred as it is "cooked" until it goes through the various stages of saponification. Once ready, excess water is evaporated and the soap is poured into molds.
• Less cleanup to do afterwards (compared to cold process)
• The soap you make is ready more quickly.
• You use less amount of fragrance than you do with cold process.
• It's difficult to take out of plastic molds. You would have to modify your recipe and method in order to make your soap work well with plastic molds (i.e. use more oils).
• Again, you have to learn how to handle lye safely.
• Really requires attention to detail since you will have to be more careful as you "cook" the soap.
• You will have limited time to add colorants, additives and fragrances, and to pour soap into your molds.

This comes next to cold process in popularity among soapmakers since it is probably the easiest to make. Note that the term "melt and pour soap making" is in actuality a misnomer, since no actual saponification is observed in this method. In this process, pre-made bars of glycerin soap are melted in either a double broiler or a microwave oven in 30-second bursts. Once melted, colorants and fragrances are added then the soap is then poured into molds.
• No lye involved.
• Easy and inexpensive, it's a method that's great for soap making beginners.
• You only need a few ingredients to begin.
• No curing necessary. Your soap will be ready to use immediately after it hardens.
• You are given lots of freedom when it comes to aesthetics - in casting your soap and in adding fragrance to it.
• You have limited control over the ingredients in your soap. Your final soap is only as good as the soap base you buy.
• Some soap base manufacturers add chemicals to the glycerin soap you're using to make it melt better or to increase its lather. Your soap may not be as natural as you think it is.

Soap: What is it and where does it come from.

Until the early 1900’s, much of the soap used was made at home. Fats from cooking and butchering were saved until there was enough to make a batch of soap. This all changed in 1916 when a shortage of fats (a main ingredient in soap) occurred during World War I. As an alternative was needed, enterprising companies developed the first synthetic soaps called detergents.

With a wide variety of oils available today, making your own soap is once again very inexpensive, and a good choice for those concerned about quality, health related benefits, and the environment.

Successful soap making today is a result of a much better understanding of chemistry, experience, and a wider variety of ingredients to choose from. Today's soaps are milder and better for skin thanks to the availability of vegetable and plant based oils.
Chemically speaking, soap is a salt. An acid and a base react with one another and are neutralized to form a salt or soap. A more basic explanation is: oils or fats combine with Sodium Hydroxide or “Lye” in a process called saponification to produce soap.

Hand made soap retains extra glycerin, known to soften the skin naturally. Glycerin is one of the best known humecants (attracts moisture to the skin). It is often extracted during the process of manufacturing commercially made soap, then sold as a valuable by-product. Natural ingredients are rarely used in commercially manufactured soap. If used at all, it is sparingly. One of the best advantages of making your own soap is that you are in charge of quality control. You decide which ingredients to use and how much.

Animal versus Vegetable-based Soaps

Originally, all soap was made from animal fats — mainly lard from pigs and tallow from cattle. It was readily available and at the time no one questioned the use of animal by-products. Over time, new oils were extracted from vegetables, grains and nuts providing an alternative to animal oils.

Vegetable oil soaps are chemically superior and can be of higher quality than soaps made with animal fats. Vegetable oils are more readily absorbed by the skin while animal oils have been found to clog pores and aggravate certain skin conditions, such as eczema.

The Soap Process
Natural hand-made soap is not difficult to make, once you understand the basics. You can make a batch of soap in as little as one hour, depending on the formula.

The following is the basic formula for making all soap:
Fatty acid (oil) + Base (lye) = “A Salt” (soap) :
The oil or fat is heated gently. Lye and water are combined separately. When both ingredients reach the required temperature, they are combined. When the mixture becomes the desired consistency, it is poured into a mould. The bars are then removed from the mould after setting up (approximately 24 to 48 hours). They are restacked and allowed to “cure” or dry until hard. This can take anywhere from 3 to 8 weeks depending on the formula.

There are 3 keys to successful soap making :-

1. Accurately weighed ingredients.
2. A good formula.
3. Proper technique.

Cold Process Method: This process is widely used by home-based soap makers. The neutralization stage takes place during the moulding stage. Our kits follow this method.

Semi-boiled Method: After the soap mixture traces, heat is added using a double-boiler to cause the soap to neutralize before being moulded.

Full-boiled Method: This method is where all ingredients are prepared in one large container. Heat is added causing neutralization. Large commercial manufacturers use this method to achieve the by-product called glycerin.

Transparent Soap: This soap is made clear by adding solvents such as alcohol to prevent crystals from forming as the soap cools. Transparent soap is often referred to as Glycerin Soap. However, this is a fallacy as glycerin is not needed to produce a clear or transparent soap. This soap can be drying to the skin.

Melt and Pour Soap: Or also known a solid Glycerin blocks. Pure glycerin, animal or vegetable derived, is always liquid and can only be solidified by the addition of plastizer chemicals. To produce a foam, detergents are added. This method is simply making soap from soap and is more expensive than starting from scratch. Melt and pour soaps may have natural ingredients added to them but they are synthetically based.
A preservative is defined as something that protects against decomposition. However, nature has its own agenda and decay is inevitable. There are no preservatives, synthetic or natural, that can completely stop this process — they can only slow it down.

Oxidation occurs within fats/oils which causes rancidity and spoilage to occur. Carrot oil, Vitamin E oil, and Grapefruit Seed Extract are three natural preservatives that are recommended. They contain powerful anti-oxidants such as vitamin A, E and C, which can help prevent spoilage.

The formulas in this booklet do not require any additional preservatives, unless you choose to add an ingredient that is vulnerable to rancidity, i.e. fresh fruit or vegetable matter.

Equipment Needed
• One large stainless steel mixing bowl (the larger the better). This greatly reduces the amount of splatter leaving the bowl during the mixing process.
• One heat-resistant container that hold 2 cups (glass Pyrex works well) to mix Lye and water. Note: Using a large container may result in rapid heat loss and temperatures not reaching their goal.
• A container to heat oils. If using the stove, a stainless steel pot will do. If using the microwave, use a microwave-safe container.
• Candy or meat thermometer made of glass and stainless steel (having two works best — one for the lye and one for the oil).
• Protective wear: long sleeved shirt, pants, shoes (no bare feet), glasses and rubber gloves. Keep a bottle of vinegar nearby to neutralize lye spills.
• Soap moulds; plastic, cardboard, or wood (use wax paper to line, see “Soap Moulds”).
• Measuring spoons, pot holders or oven mitts, and plastic spatulas.
• Digital scale, accurate to at least two grams (if not using our kits).

Soap Moulds

Generally, you can use just about any type of plastic, wood, or cardboard as a soap mould. Do not use tin, aluminum, Teflon, or copper as they react with the lye. Candy and candle moulds may work well, too. If you want something simple, choose a square or rectangular container and cut the bars to size after your soap has set. Cardboard milk or juice containers work well as they are coated with wax.

To make round soaps try recycling a plastic bottle. Using an empty, clean, plastic pop or round shampoo bottle, carefully slice the sides of the bottle lengthwise. Tape sides using plastic packing tape to prevent leakage. Pour the soap mixture and let set for required amount of time. Peel tape back and release your soap, then cut the bars to a desired size. Set to cure as usual.

If you are having trouble getting your soap to release from the mould, try placing it in the freezer for two hours. This will cause the soap mixture to shrink from the sides and make removal easier.

To help with release, use vegetable shortening to grease your moulds. Cardboard or wooden moulds require a combination of waxed paper or freezer paper and vegetable shortening.

Tip: Line your moulds with brown freezer or butcher’s paper. Apply some vegetable shortening to the inside surfaces of your mould, lay in some freezer paper, shiny side up, and trim to fit. After removal, simply peel off the paper from your soap block the next day.

Rebatching into fancy moulds

Handmilling or rebatching soap after unmoulding is done to achieve greater medicinal benefits from ingredients like herbs and essential oils, to increase colour intensity, and to change the shape and texture of the soap.

Rebatching can be done after unmoulding by grating or chopping a soap bar and using water to melt it. As a general rule, combine one cup of grated soap to 1/4 cup of water or herbal infusion. Heat in a double boiler or use a glass Pyrex container to microwave. Heat gently, stirring constantly to help break down soap pieces and evaporate the water. Continue until all water has evaporated. Remove from heat and add optional ingredients i.e.: herbs, spices, grains, essential oils, creams or lotions, or carrier oils such as jojoba or shea butter.

Caution :
• Soap making is not recommended for children because of the potential danger that lye poses.
• Carefully read the warning label on the lye bottle. Lye is also known as caustic soda (sodium hydroxide)
• Use only pure lye granules — do not make the mistake of substituting drain cleaner. It contains other ingredients that you would not want in your soap.
• Be sure to keep the lid tight on the bottle of lye. Moisture in the air will weaken its strength and cause it to form lumps.
• Lye can be fatal if swallowed.
• Always wear rubber gloves and protective clothing, such as a long sleeved shirt and shielding eyewear when working with lye.
• Be sure to work in a well-ventilated area. Vapours released from the lye when it is first mixed with water are quite noxious, and can greatly irritate the lungs.
• Always have a bottle of vinegar close at hand. Vinegar will help neutralize the lye/water mixture if it happens to splatter on your skin.
• Lye can remove paint, so be careful not to let it come in contact with any painted surfaces. If lye, lye/water or even freshly made soap splatters on any painted surface, wash the area quickly with water and detergent. Rinse with clear water and wipe dry.
• Freshly made soap can burn and irritate the skin, therefore it’s best not to handle soap with bare hands for at least 48 hours. If your skin does come into contact with fresh soap, rinse your skin with vinegar immediately, then rinse with running water.
• Do not use any containers made of tin, zinc or aluminum. Lye will react with them.
• Recommended containers for mixing your soap include glass, plastic, stainless steel, enamel, and heat proof stoneware.

Testing your soap for proper pH level

You can test your soap for excess lye by applying a few drops of Phenolphthalein, a colourless, clear liquid. This chemical will turn pink or fuchsia in the presence of an alkali or an excess of lye. Soap that is to be used on the skin should be in the range of 7 to 9.5.
It’s the degree of pink that determines how alkaline your soap is. If a drop applied to the middle of a soap cutting turns deep pink or fuchsia then the soap should not be used on the skin. This soap however is great for the house and or laundry. If the drop stays clear or turns just the lightest shade of transparent pink then your soap should be fine.

If your soap was left uncovered while in the mould then the white chalk-like substance on the surface (soda ash) will also test alkaline. This can be trimmed off or avoided by applying plastic wrap to the surface right after pouring your soap into the mould.

Soap Making: Cold Process Method

Carefully read the sections on Caution, and Soap making: the procedure before beginning. One of the most common mistakes soap makers make is not weighing the ingredients carefully. This is a crucial step. Make sure you use an accurate digital scale to weigh your oils and your Lye.

Each premixed bottle of oil makes approximately 700g of soap. You can combine several bottles together to make a larger batch, however, it is a good idea when making soap for the first time to make small batches in order to learn as you go.

1. If making soap from one of our kits, set one of Cranberry Lane’s pre-mixed oil bottles in a hot water bath to liquefy contents (do not microwave these bottles). When the oil in the bottle becomes clear, pour into a 2 cup measuring cup. Be sure to get all the oil out of the bottle.
2. If making soap from the “Soap Formulas” guide, accurately measure all oils required for your soap recipe using a digital scale.

3. The Oil Phase. Gently heat oils using one of these two methods:
Stove Method: Use a stainless steel pot on the stove. Be careful not to burn oils.
Microwave Method: Use a microwave-safe container for your oils. Heat for 1 minute on high, then use 20 second intervals thereafter, until the required temperature is reached. (150°F, 65°C for our Basic or Deluxe Soap Making Kit).

Skill tip:
Heat oil to 10°C past the required temperature per formula. This will allow time for the lye to cool to its correct temperature. Always heat oils before mixing lye and water.

1. The lye/water phase. Pour room temperature distilled water (amount specified by formula) into a clean glass 2 cup size measuring cup. (If using our Basic, Refill, or Deluxe Soap Making Kit use 3/4 cup) While stirring, slowly add one bottle of lye. This mixture will quickly become very hot. Continue stirring until the water turns clear. Do not inhale the fumes. Place a candy thermometer in the cup, do not rest it on the bottom as it will give you a false reading — keep it somewhere in the middle. Let this mixture cool to the required temperature (refer to “Soap Formulas” for temperatures or use 150°F, 65°C for our Basic or Deluxe Soap Making Kit).

2. Pour the hot oil into a large mixing bowl. Use a plastic spatula to get all the oil out of the measuring cup. When both oil phase and lye/water phase have reached their required temperatures, slowly pour the lye/water mixture into the oil mixture while stirring in rapid, small circles.
Note: Always add lye/water to oil, not the other way around.

Continue to stir this mixture even after you have finished combining the two parts. Use a rapid, figure 8 pattern for stirring — being careful to incorporate the sides as well.

3. Stir the soap mixture until it “traces”. This is a term to describe the consistency or thickness, and the stage where the soap mixture is ready to pour into moulds. Tracing is easily recognized. Using a plastic spatula, drizzle a small amount across the top of the soap mixture. If a mark or trail remains for a few seconds before disappearing again, your soap has traced. The mixture should be the consistency of liquid honey or pudding before it’s poured. If your soap takes a little longer than normal, don’t worry — just keep stirring and it will eventually trace.
Tracing time for formulas can vary greatly; affected by room temperatures, humidity levels, and the speed of stirring. The tracing time for our formulas are based on normal room temperatures 20° to 23°C and average humidity levels.

4. After the soap traces, you can add your own herbs and essential oils (see pages 12-13 for some great ideas). Do not use perfume, synthetic fragrances, or extracts of any kind as the alcohol content may interfere with the soap making process.

5. After adding any additional ingredients, pour your soap mixture into the mould. Place a piece of clear plastic wrap on top to create an air barrier. Cover your mould with a blanket or towel and place in a warm location away from drafts and children’s reach. Let set undisturbed for the specified moulding time as stated in the formula for your oil blend.
Moulding tip: Grease your mould with vegetable shortening for ease of release later. Wear gloves during clean up and use hot water and dish soap to remove all residue from equipment.

6. When removing soap from the mould, wear gloves to protect your hands. The soap may be slightly caustic at this stage and can irritate your skin. Gently press the back of the mould. You may find twisting the mold slightly works as well — same technique as removing ice from ice cube trays. If your soap will not release easily, try placing the mould in the freezer for one hour. Freezing causes moisture loss and the soap will contract and pull away from the edges. Use a large knife to cut your soap into desired size bars. (Note: colour may fade in soap placed in the freezer)

7. After soap has been cut into bars, place them on a piece of wax paper or plastic wrap in a cool, dry, dark place to cure or age as specified in each formula. This time is necessary for the moisture to evaporate. Using the soap prematurely will lead to a spongy bar that may not lather or last very long. Wait for at least three weeks before finishing your bars (see section on “Finishing”.) After your bars have had a chance to dry or cure they will be able to with stand some rough handling. All good things take time! Write down the date of unmoulding and keep it with the curing soap as a reference.

Within 1/2 hour of pouring your soap into the mould you should notice it becoming hotter and turning dark in the middle. It can become quite dark and somewhat transparent. Bubbles may also come to the surface. This is a sign that your soap is properly neutralizing. It should stay hot like this for several hours before cooling and becoming light in colour again. Soap that is not properly insulated, cooled too much during tracing, poured into too small a mould, or with initial temperatures too low may not completely neutralize.

Making Liquid Soap

Because of the moisture content of a natural liquid soap, they can be susceptible to rancidity. Keep your liquid soap in a cool dry place and in an air tight bottle, preferably with a pump or flip top to dispense your soap.
1. Follow the procedure for making soap as specified in the formula, with one exception — no curing time.
2. After you have removed your soap from a simple mould, shave, shred or chop the soap into small pieces.
3. Place one cup of shredded soap in a double-boiler and add 3 cups of water. Stir continually on medium heat until melted.
Note: Soap may not completely melt. There may be small pieces that do not break down, simply strain them out.
4. When all the soap has melted it should be very runny. If not, add an extra cup of water.
5. Add four tablespoons of vegetable Glycerin and 1/2 tsp. of Grapefruit Seed Extract to help preserve your liquid soap. You may also add any essential oil to scent before pouring your liquid soap into bottles. Try adding 6 - 10 drops per 500ml. Your liquid soap should have a shelf life of approximately 6 - 8 months.

Our shampoo refill kit or shampoo recipe melts into liquid soap very easily. It has a large proportion of castor oil and makes a softer bar of soap. Soaps that are made with soft oils (oils that are liquid at room temperature) make softer soaps. Although initially softer, many of these soaps will still cure to become very hard bars.

Diagnosing Signs of Trouble in Soap
Trouble in Mixing Bowl

Your mixture does not trace after the time listed in the formula passes. You may have one of the following problems: incorrect temperatures, stirring too slowly, or too much water. Make sure you get all the oil blend and lye out of their containers. Measure water accurately to ensure the correct amount is used, stir mixture smoothly and consistently. The Perfect Blend™ kit should trace within 45 minutes.

Your mixture suddenly begins to streak. Your temperatures may have been too cold. If your soap still traces then quickly pour into molds.

Your mixture begins to curdle in the bowl. Synthetic fragrances may cause this. Small chunks form in the bowl while mixing. Your oils, lye, or both may have been poured too hot, or you are stirring inconsistently or too slowly. Soap mixture may still trace, but this mixture is unsuitable, leading to poor soap quality. Test soap after un-moulding.

Your mixture becomes, or is slightly grainy. Temperatures were either too high or too low, or your stirring wasn’t brisk and consistent. Maintaining temperature is very important for soap making. If your soap batch is split up and poured into small moulds after tracing, it may lose temperature to quickly and not completely neutralize.
Trouble Signs in Finished Soap
Your soap cracks or breaks when un-moulded or when being cut. You may have added too much dry ingredients, or traced your soap batch too long. See “Scents & Herbs to Try.”

Your soap has a thin layer of white on the surface. Your soap mixture has reacted to the oxygen in the air. This is only an aesthetic problem, refer to Step #7 in the “Soap Making, the cold process method” section to avoid this next time.

Your soap has hard, shiny chunks of solid lye, the rest of your soap is soft with a slippery liquid on the bottom. Your soap may have been poured into the mold before it had traced, or you stirred too slowly or inconsistently. Do not use these bars, they will irritate the skin.

You see air bubbles in your soap. You may have stirred too quickly, or for too long. Your soap has an excessive amount of white powder on top of the bars, is cakey, or crumbly. Hard water may have been used to dissolve the lye. You should not use these bars, as they may irritate your skin. Be sure to use only distilled water in the future.

Scents and Herbs To Try: How to Add your Favourite Ingredients
Remember to add all optional ingredients after your soap has traced. Note One batch refers to one bottle of any of our blended oils which make approximately 10 bars. If you are blending oils yourself, for the purposes of these instructions, one batch makes 700 grams of soap.

Essential Oils are defined as: "Highly concentrated essences extracted from portions of the plant." They have been valued and used throughout history for their therapeutic and scent qualities. You can add a wide variety of essential oils to your soap as long as they are considered safe. Essential oils are highly concentrated and are extremely powerful. Some are beneficial while others can be harmful. It is best to research an oil before using it to: a) determine the safety of the oil, and b) ensure that the oil(s) are compatible with your body type. For the soap maker, the only oils that have a habit of causing some problems (if added in high volume) are the citrus oils. They can disrupt the soap making process causing the soap to curdle. Limit these oils to no more than 2 tablespoons (30ml) per 700g batch.

Blending for scent qualities: Many scents today are the direct result of scent characteristics present in nature. When it comes to blending a scent there are three main scent classifications or "notes": top, middle, and base. The top note is the odour that is immediately perceived, generally uplifting and stimulating; i.e. orange. The middle note, or modifier, provides full, solid character to the scent. Clary Sage and Marjoram are often selected as middle notes. The base note, or end note, adds depth to a blend. It becomes apparent when the top and middle notes have faded and the last volatile components remain. Clove and Sandalwood are common base notes.

A general guideline for scenting your soap using top, middle, and base notes is: Top notes require 15 to 20 ml of essential oil per batch, for middle notes use 5 to 10ml of essential oil per batch and for base notes use 2.5 to 5ml per batch. Scenting your soaps is a personal choice and individual tastes will vary.

We recommend adding a fixative to your soap if you are adding essential oils. A common fixative such as Orris Root powder acts as a "glue" for the scent. We suggest adding 1/2 tsp of Orris Root powder per 700g batch.

Top Notes Middle Notes Base Notes
Tea Tree

Clary Sage




Black Pepper

Colouring your soaps: Using ingredients like clays you can achieve shades of pink and terracotta red. For earth purple use Ratanjot, for yellows use Annatto seeds, for greens use Chlorophyll, Stevia, Spirulina and Alfalfa powder, for peach and orange tones try Paprika. Try adding 1/2 tsp. at a time until you have achieved the desired shade.

Herbs, flowers and other additives: Most herbs and flowers lose there colour when added to first run soaps. It is always best to hand mill or rebatch your soap for such results. You can add other ingredients like grains and seeds either in a whole or ground state, be sure to limit their use to a maximum volume of 2 tbsp. per batch of soap.

Superfatting: You can add an extra carrier oil to increase the moisturizing capabilities of your soap. Do not exceed 2 tablespoons per batch. Oils such as Jojoba, Shea Butter, Castor, Avocado and Hemp are excellent choices for super fatting.

What to avoid: The following ingredients are not safe to add to your soap: Food colouring, fabric dyes, candle dyes, paints, or melted Crayons (even the non-toxic type),

Finishing Tips
When it comes to finishing and packaging your soap, the only limit is your imagination. Have fun with different techniques. Here are a few ideas to get you started.
Note: Allow your bars to cure at least 3 weeks.

To remove the rough outer surface of your soap, buff your bars with an abrasive cloth or piece of pure wool. You may have some bumps and lumps that can be removed easily with a knife. For a simple and quick design, take a small, serrated paring knife and shave off a thin layer of soap on one side. This will leave a wavy line, symbolizing water.

A simple way to decorate and wrap your soap is to use a piece of paper or cloth as a band around the soap. Allow approximately 1/2” of soap exposure on either side. It’s nice to see and smell your hand-made soap. Try paper bags, cloth remnants, postcards, or old greeting cards.

Personalize your bars with the person’s name on the label. “Suds for Bud”, “Barbara’s Beauty Bar”. Make guest soaps for a wedding with the bride and groom’s names and date. Make great stocking stuffers or basket fillers. How about candy cane (peppermint essential oil) scented liquid soap?

For an elaborate monogram, use a separate, smaller mould in the shape of a letter or design — choose a dark shade of soap for this technique. When your letter or design soap is set, remove it from its mould and place it upside down at the bottom of a larger mould. Then pour white or light coloured soap over the object and let it set. When the two have set together, carefully remove from the mould and polish.

Description of Ingredients :

Avocado Oil: Pressed from dried and fresh avocado. A stable oil with a built in antioxidant system. High in Vitamins A, B, and D, and rich in lecithin. Has a beneficial effect on dry skin and wrinkles.

Beeswax: Excreted by worker bees to construct the honeycomb. Has excellent skin protective qualities and increases hardness of soap.

Castor Oil: Expressed from the Castor Bean. Soothing to the skin, it is used widely in lipsticks, solid perfumes and bath oils. As a soap making oil it acts as a humectant.

Coconut Oil: Pressed from the dried meat of the coconut. Adds lather and moisturizing properties.

Cocoa Butter: Expressed from the roasted seeds of the Cocoa plant. Softens and lubricates the skin.

Distilled Water: The collected and condensed steam of boiling water.

Jojoba Oil: A natural liquid from the kernels of the Jojoba desert plant. Has a chemical composition resembling the skin’s sebum. Antibacterial characteristics. Excellent for dry skin conditions.

Lye: The solution of Sodium Hydroxide and water. Sodium Hydroxide or Caustic Soda is the strong alkaline base component of soap making.

Olive Oil: (Pomice grade) Made from the pressing of the olive fruit and pits. An inferior food grade olive oil but good for soap making.

Palm Oil: Extracted from the fruit of the palm tree. This oil is rich and viscous. Soothes and moisturizes dry skin.

Palm Kernel Oil: Extracted from the nut of the palm tree. Used in small proportions it adds hardness to soap and provides lather.

Shea Butter: From the nuts of the Bassia parkii tree in Africa. It is high in unsaponifiables and adds moisturizing properties to soap.

Vegetable Shortening: Hydrogenated Canola Oil. A inexpensive soft oil to balance the hard oils of coconut and palm.

Each of these recipes makes 1.5kg (3.3lbs.) of soap. A mould of these dimensions or that adds up to the same number when multiplied together will do. (6"x7"x2.5"deep) The wooden soap mould in the Moulds page of or on-line shopping section works very well.

Basic Soap Formula
oily to normal skin
Ingredients Temperatures & Times
598 g
296 g
30 g
58 g
150 g
368 ml Coconut Oil
Vegetable Shortening
Avocado Oil
Lye (6% discount)
Distilled Water Oil Temperature
Lye/Water Temperature
Cure Time
Trace Time
Mould Time 55°C (130°F)
55°C (130°F)
3 Weeks
15 Minutes
24 Hours

Olive & Palm
sensitive and normal skin
Ingredients Temperatures & Times
680 g
302 g
18 g
128 g
374 ml Olive Oil (pomace)
Palm Oil
Lye (6% discount)
Distilled Water Oil Temperature
Lye/Water Temperature
Cure Time
Trace Time
Mould Time 55°C (130°F)
55°C (130°F)
4 Weeks
25 Minutes
24 Hours
We have more soap formulas in a pdf file for you to download and print. You can download the free pdf reader from Adobe to open this file.


In 1990 I decided not to use the commercially made shampoos after reading Aubrey Hampton's book, "Natural Organic Hair and Skin Care." In this book Aubrey tells you how to read the label on any product that you put on your skin or hair.

Manufacturers are constantly using toxic chemicals in their skin and hair products and disregard their toxic effects on your body. This is easily seen in the list of chemicals that they use. Here are a few of these chemicals found in many product labels:

• Propylene glycol or glycol- a petrochemical used because it is cheap
• Cetearyl alcohol - emulsifier that can be synthetic or natural
• Methylparaben or propylparaben - typical synthetic preservatives
• Distearate - this is polyethylene glycol or polypropylene glycol which are petrochemicals.
• Isopropyl alcohol - used as a cheap solvent to carry synthetic oils.

Here is a natural shampoo that you can make. This formulation is something that I have been using for many years. First collect the following items :-

4 oz of castile soap with any scent is that available - plain, peppermint, eucalyptus. ½ oz of rosemary - stimulates the hair follicles and helps to prevent premature baldness ½ oz of sage - has antioxidants and keeps things from spoiling and is antibacterial ½ oz of nettles - acts as a blood purifier, blood stimulator, contains a large source of nutrients for hair growth ½ of lavender - controls the production of sebaceous gland oil and reduces itchy and flaky scalp conditions 2000 mg of MSM - provides organic sulfur to your scalp, which improves the health and strength of your hair. It also helps to drive herbal nutrient into the skin and follicles where they can do the most good.

One empty 8 oz plastic bottle, or any other empty shampoo or soap bottle. Mix the herbs in a mason jar, which has a lid. Boil 2 cups of distilled water. Add 3 heaping tablespoons of the mixed herbs into the boiling water. Pull the boiling water and herbs off the stove. Let the herb mixture sit for 30 - 40 minutes. Put the 2000mg of MSM into the herb mixture after 30 minutes of cooling. After 40 minutes and the MSM is melted, strain the herbal mixture into a bowl. Pour 2 to 2 1/2 oz of strained herbal tea into the 8 oz plastic bottle. Now, pour the 4 oz of castile soap into the 8 oz plastic bottle. Cap the bottle and shake to mix the ingredients.

The shampoo is now finished and ready for use. Use this as a base for all of the shampoos you make. You can add different herbs as you learn what these herbs do and how they help your hair. You can vary the ingredients according to your taste. But now you have a shampoo that has no additives that can harm you.

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Your hair needs extra care and protection to keep them shiny and silky. Regular use of shampoo not only makes your hair shiny but also reduces hair loss and dandruff. The commercial shampoos available in the market contain sudsing agents that break down the suds.

For this purpose, it is better to prepare your shampoo at home for better results. Preparation of shampoo is also cost effective.

Homemade Shampoos

Soapwart Shampoo
This Soapwart Shampoo is suitable for all kinds of hair types. For the preparation of Soapwart Shampoo you will require 2 cups distilled water, 2 teaspoons full Lemon Verbena or 2 teaspoons Catnip according to your wish and one and half tablespoons dried soapwart root.

Put soapwart in boil water and simmer it. Leave it for 20 minutes. After 20 minutes remove from heat and put herb on it. Allow it to cool. Strain the mixture and keep the liquid shampoo in a clean bottle. Use within 8-10 days for better results.

Herbal Homemade Shampoo
For the preparation of herbal home made shampoo you will need 1/4 cup of strongly brewed herbal tea and 8 oz liquid castile soap. Put the liquid castile soap in the herbal tea and stir it over low hit. Mix it thoroughly. Allow it to cool. Store it in a tight capped bottle.

Egg Shampoo
Egg shampoo turns your life less hair into shiny. To prepare Egg shampoo you need 1 egg, 1 tablespoon of lemon juice, 1 tablespoon castile soap, 1 tablespoon olive oil 1/2 cup water or you can also use herbal tea and essential oil (optional). Mix all the ingredients. Your shampoo is ready. Store the shampoo in the refrigerator.
Neem shampoo
Take 1 kilogram of gram flour, 250 grams of sandalwood powder, 1 kg of shikakai powder and 4 to 5 cups of neem leaves powder. Blend all the ingredients thoroughly and store it in a capped bottle for future use. Before washing put 2 tablespoons of the mixture in a cup of water and then apply.

Methi-shikakai shampoo
You need 1 kg of shikakai, 250 grams of methi, handful of orange or lemon peels. Make a fine powder of all these ingredients. Before washing your hair, mix this powder with half cup of water and keep it for at least 2 hours.

Sandalwood shampoo
Ingredients required to make this shampoo are 100 grams of khus, 200 grams of reetha, 100 grams of charilla, 100 grams of amla, 100 grams of char, 200 grams of shikakai, ½ teaspoon of sodium benzoate, 8 teaspoons of sandalwood oil and 2 ½ liters of water. Mix Amla, Reetha, Shikakai, Khus, Char, Charilla with water for 12 hours. In the morning boil the ingredients. Strain the mixture and add sodium benzoate and sandalwood oil to it. Your Sandalwood Shampoo is ready

Lime shampoo
To prepare lime shampoo you will require 100 grams of char, 100 garms of khus, 100 grams of charilla, 100 grams of amla, 200 grams of shikakai, 200 grams of reetha, 4 teaspoons of lime juice, 8 teaspoons of glycerine, 1 ½ teaspoons of sodium benzoate and 2 ½ liters of water. Boil all the ingredients in water. Strain it and store in an airtight container.


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